INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME
FOOD COLOURS, EMULSIFIERS, STABILIZERS,
ANTI-CAKING AGENTS AND CERTAIN
FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series
No. 46A WHO/FOOD ADD/70.36
The content of this document is the result of the deliberations of the
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives which met in Rome,
27 May - 4 June 19691
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
World Health Organization
1 Thirteenth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food
Additives, FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series, in press;
Wld Hlth Org. techn. Rep. Ser., in press.
ACETYLATED DISTARCH GLYCEROL
Modification is carried out with epichlorhydrin to a maximum of 0.3
per cent. and acetic anhydride to a maximum of five per cent. The
amount of acetyl groups introduced does not exceed 2.5 per cent.
Further treatment, such as bleaching, is often carried out.
No separate tests on enzymic hydrolysis are available but it is very
likely that this modified starch behaves like starch acetate and
distarch glycerol, both of which are somewhat less accessible to
enzymic degradation. The caloric value was determined by reference to
a dose-response curve established in groups of 10 male rats given a
basic diet with graded supplements of 0, 0.075 g, 1.5 g, 3.0 g and 4.5
g sucrose equivalent to 0, 3, 6, 12 and 18 calories per day. Starches
modified by the use of 0.1 per cent. epichlorhydrin + 5.5 per cent.
acetic anhydride and 0.3 per cent. epichlorhydrin + 5.5 per cent.
acetic anhydride were tested against native starch at levels of
supplementation of 1.5 g and 3.0 g per day for 28 days. Weight gain on
modified starch supplement was slightly reduced compared with that on
unmodified starch. All rats remained normally active and healthy. The
caloric estimates were similar for both levels of epichlorhydrin
treatment (Oser, 1961).
Rat. Groups of 15 male and 15 female rats were fed for 90 days on
diets containing 50 per cent. either normal or modified starch (0.3
per cent. epichlorhydrin + 10.5 per cent. acetic anhydride). Two
modified starches of this sort were tested, each containing 3.1 per
cent acetyl. There were no deaths. The growth rate of male rats was
significantly lower compared with controls on unmodified starch. The
full and empty casual weights of both male and female rats in the test
groups were significantly greater than in controls. Haematology, blood
chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights and gross as well as histological
examination were normal (Oser, 1964).
The available data do not permit the establishment of a no-effect
level. The interpretation of increased caecal weights is discussed in
the thirteenth report (see Annex 1, Ref. 18). Adequate metabolic
studies preferably in man and 90-day studies in two species (one a
non-rodent mammal) are required.
Not possible on the data available.
Oser, M. (1961) Unpublished report by Food & Drug Research
Laboratories Inc. No. 81774, 1st June 1961, submitted by the National
Starch and Chemical Corporation
Oser, B. L. (1964) Unpublished report by Food & Drug Research
Laboratories Inc. No. 85554, 16th October 1964, submitted by the
National Starch and Chemical Corporation