Sponsored jointly by FAO and WHO


    Data and recommendations of the joint meeting
    of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues
    in Food and the Environment and the
    WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues
    Rome, 23 November - 2 December 1982

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    Rome 1983




         This fungicide was evaluated by the Joint Meetings in 1965, 1969,
    1973, 1974, 1977 and 1978 (FAO/WHO 1965b, 1970b, 1974b, 1975b, 1978b
    and 1979).1/ A full ADI of 0-0.1 mg/kg body weight was established on
    the basis of the no-effect levels partially taken from data reported
    by Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories (IBT). The latter include
    long-term/carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats, a three-generation
    reproduction in rats and teratology studies in rabbits, dogs and

         New studies have become available and are summarized and
    discussed in this monograph addendum. In addition, the major concerns
    raised in a Rebuttable Presumption Against Registration (RPAR) issued
    in the U.S. for captan in August 1980 relating to oncogenic and
    mutagenic effects have been considered in this review of new data.



    Absorption, Distribution and Excretion

         In normal, sham-operated and partially hepatectomized male rats,
    the rate of elimination of a single dose or three daily doses of
    (35S)-captan, at 6 mg/kg body weight given intraperitoneally, was
    similar. Approximately 77-89% of the total administered radioactivity
    was eliminated within 72 hours, of the single or multiple dosing
    primarily in the urine but also in the faeces. The pattern of
    distribution of 35S-residues in tissues from these rats, sacrificed
    75 hours after the single dose or 24 hours after the third daily dose,
    was also essentially the same with the highest concentration being
    detected in the blood and the lowest in brain. Additionally, nuclei
    isolated from liver of rats after treatment with three daily
    intraperitoneal doses of (35S)-captan contained appreciable amounts
    of radioactivity. There were no differences in normal, sham-operated
    or partially hepatectomized animals (Couch  et al 1977).


    1/  See Annex 2 for WHO and FAO documentation.

    Effects on Other Biochemical Parameters

         Incubation of isolated liver nuclei from normal rats with captan
    for 10 minutes at 37C resulted in changes in distribution of various
    protein fractions. One of the major changes was extensive aggregation
    of nuclear sap proteins and deoxyribonucleoprotein. Binding studies
    with isolated rat liver nuclei indicated evolution as gas(es) of a
    large percentage of the total radioactivity from (35S)-captan,
    suggesting occurrence of an interaction of captan with thiol groups in
    the nucleus with subsequent release of the SCCl3 moiety. Following
    incubation with 35S-captan, the rate of 35S binding and the
    percentage of 35S-labelled gas evolved were slightly higher in
    isolated liver nuclei from normal rats than from partially
    hepatectomized rats (Couch  et al 1977).

         In adult Swiss Webster female mice fed technical captan in their
    diet at levels ranging from 4 000 to 16 000 ppm for up to 35 days,
    soluble thiol levels in the duodenum from the proximal end were
    elevated throughout the feeding period. The increase, not strictly
    dose-dependent, was already evident on day 1 and peaked between 14 and
    21 days following initiation of the study. The liver from these
    animals exhibited normal or slightly depressed levels of soluble
    thiols. Results from this experiment were confirmed by those of a
    second test with groups of female mice of the same strain fed dietary
    levels of captan ranging from 500 to 16 000 ppm for up to 213 days. In
    the latter experiment, a dose-response relationship was noted with
    respect to levels of duodeneal soluble thiols (Miaullis  et al 1980).


    Special Studies on Reproduction

         Groups of 15 male and 30 female rats (Charles River COBS CD
    strain, 31 days old) were fed technical captan in their diet at the
    equivalent of 0, 25, 100, 250 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day for 102
    days and then mated to initiate a three-generation reproduction study.
    The procedure normally used in a standard three-generation (two
    litters/generation) study was followed but an additional litter, F2c,
    was produced from F1 parents for teratological evaluation. Pups of
    the second litters (F1b and F2b) became parents of the next
    generation. After the third mating trial, F1 dams were sacrificed on
    gestation day 19 and the F2c foetuses were removed by caesarean
    section for examination of external, skeletal and soft tissue
    abnormalities. In the parental generations, no compound-related effect
    on mortality, appearance and behaviour was apparent. Dose-related
    growth depression occurred in both sexes at and above 100 mg/kg body
    weight/day throughout all three generations and in F0 and F2 males
    even at 25 mg/kg body weight/day. Food consumption was decreased at
    all dosage levels in a dose-dependent trend in all three generations.

    A reduction in pregnancy rate was observed in F0 generation (first
    mating trial) at 500 mg/kg body weight/day and possibly also at
    250 mg/kg body weight/day. In the progeny generations litter size at
    birth was reduced in all treated groups in F1a and F1b litters and at
    100 mg/kg body weight/day and above in F2a and F2b litters. Pup
    survival was adversely affected at 250 mg/kg body weight/day in F1a,
    F2a and F3a litters throughout lactation day 4 and at 500 mg/kg body
    weight practically throughout the lactation period in all progeny
    generations. Dose-related depression in pup weight was seen at and
    above 100 mg/kg body weight/day in litters of all three generations
    and at 25 mg/kg body weight/day in most litters. Weanling pups in each
    generation exhibited no compound-related abnormalities at necropsy.
    Teratological evaluation of the F2c litter revealed no effect
    attributable to treatment with respect to fertility, number of non-
    viable foetuses, early and late resorptions and post-implantation loss
    per dam, sex ratio and incidence of foetuses or litters with
    malformations. Foetal body weight was depressed at 500 mg/kg body
    weight/day. There was a slight decrease in the mean number of viable
    foetuses per dam and a corresponding decrease in total implantations
    at 250 mg/kg body weight/day and above. The number of corpora lutea
    per dam was reduced at 500 mg/kg body weight/day.

         The study failed to demonstrate a no-effect level on
    reproduction, although teratogenic effect was not evident from data on
    the F2c litter (International Research and Development 1982a).

         A preliminary report of a one-generation, one litter reproduction
    study in rats (Charles River CD) with groups of 15 males and 30
    females fed captan-treated diets for 100 days prior to mating
    indicated that "minor" effects on litter weight, noted at 25 mg/kg
    body weight/day, were not apparent at 6 or 12.5 mg/kg body weight/day.
    No other reproductive effects were reportedly noted (International
    Research and Development 1982b).

    Special Studies on Teratogenicity


         According to results reported in an abstract, pregnant CD-1
    mice exposed via inhalation to captan (whole body exposure) at
    approximately 488 mg/hour/m3 (average particle size 5 m), 4
    hours/day from day 6 through 13 of gestation produced no malformed
    foetuses. Similarly, captan was not teratogenic in pregnant CD-1 mice
    treated with 100 mg/kg body weight/day of the compound orally or
    subcutaneously from day 6 through 15 of gestation. Reduction of
    maternal body weight and a slight increase in foetal mortality were
    noted in the experiments (Courtney  et al 1978).


         In a pilot (range-finding) teratology study with mated female
    (Golden Syrian) hamsters given oral doses of technical captan at 50,
    100, 200, 300 or 400 mg/kg body weight/day on day 5 through 10 of
    gestation, there was no maternal death or treatment-related effect on
    appearance and behaviour, number of corpora lutea, implantations or
    resorptions and litter size. The only adverse effect observed was a
    dose-related decrease in maternal weight gain at 300 mg/kg body
    weight/day and above (Goldenthal 1978).

         Groups of 30 mated female Golden Syrian hamsters were given
    technical captan in 1% carboxy methylcellulose by gavage at 0, 50, 200
    or 400 mg/kg body weight/day on days 5 through 10 of gestation. The
    females were sacrificed on day 14 of gestation and foetuses were
    removed by caesarean section for external, soft tissue and skeletal
    examination. Four females at 400 mg/kg body weight/day and one female
    at 200 mg/kg body weight/day died of undetermined cause(s). Stained
    and matted anogenital fur and vaginal discharge were noted at
    400 mg/kg body weight/day. Other adverse effects at 400 mg/kg body
    weight/ day included maternal weight loss, a reduction in litter size
    and foetal weight and an increase in early and late resorptions.
    Additionally, increased post-implantation loss and a significant
    difference in sex (M/F) ratio occurred in this dosage group. Maternal
    weight gain and foetal weight were also depressed at 200 mg/kg body
    weight/day. In general the incidence of malformations appeared to be
    comparable in all groups. However, the incidence of non-specified rib
    anomalies in foetuses was 0.3, 1.4, 1.8, 2.9%, respectively, at 0, 50,
    200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day and in litters was 3.6, 15.4, 15.4
    and 8.7% (Goldenthal  et al 1979).


         Groups of 15 mated female New Zealand White rabbits were
    intubated with technical captan (89% pure) in 0.5% sodium
    carboxymethyl cellulose at 0, 6, 12, 25 or 60 mg/kg body weight/day on
    days 6-28 inclusive of pregnancy. Does were sacrificed on day 29 of
    pregnancy and uterine contents were examined. Foetuses were evaluated
    for gross, skeletal and visceral abnormalities. Pregnancy rate at
    60 mg/kg body weight/day and maternal body weight at and above
    12 mg/kg body weight/day were adversely affected. Incidence of non-
    specific signs (anorexia, reduced faecal output and water consumption)
    was increased at 60 mg/kg body weight/day and possibly also at
    25 mg/kg body weight/day. Litter and foetal weights as well as foetal
    crown/rump length were depressed at 60 mg/kg body weight/ day. There
    were no compound-related effects on the other tested parameters, i.e.
    mortality, abortion rate, total resorptions, pre-implantation loss and
    post-implantation loss including stillbirths), total litter loss in
    pregnant animals surviving to autopsy, litter size, sex ratio and
    incidence of major malformations or minor anomalies (Palmer
     et al 1981).

    Special Studies for Carcinogenicity


         Groups of 50 male and 50 female mice (B6C 3F1 hybrid; 35-day old)
    were fed captan of unspecified purity in their diet at 8 000 or
    16 000 ppm for 80 weeks and then maintained on a control diet for 11
    weeks. The control group comprised 10 mice of each sex. The animals
    were placed in the same room as groups of mice receiving aldrin or
    photodieldrin and their controls. Pooled controls, used for
    statistical comparisons, consisted of a total of 80 male and 80 female
    mice of the same strain from seven similar bio-assays (including the
    one with captan). Survival was good and no dose-related effect on
    mortality was evident. Growth was depressed at 16 000 ppm throughout
    most of the study. The total incidence of tumours was low in control
    and treated groups. However, adenomatous polyp of the duodenum was
    noted in 0/9 males and 1/9 female controls, 2/43 males and 1/49
    females at 8 000 ppm and 2/46 males and 0/49 females at 16 000 ppm. In
    addition, polypoid adenocarcinoma of the duodenum occurred in 1/43
    males and 0/49 females at 8 000 ppm and 3/46 males and 3/49 females at
    16 000 ppm, but in none of the concurrent controls (hyperplasia of the
    gastric mucosa was present in 3/46 males at 16 000 ppm). In males, the
    incidence of either adenomatous polyps or polypoid adenocarcinoma
    alone was not statistically significant, but when the two lesions,
    usually rare in occurrence, were considered together, the incidence at
    16 000 ppm was statistically significant, as compared to the pooled
    control group. In females, incidence of the duodenal lesions in
    question, considered alone or together, was not statistically
    significant. There was, however, a statistically significant dose-
    related trend with respect to incidences of both duodenal lesions in
    males and females. The conclusion was made in the report that, under
    the conditions of the bioassay, tumours in the duodenum were
    associated with treatment with captan (NCI 1977).


         Groups of 50 rats (Osborne-Mendel, 35 days old) of each sex were
    fed a diet containing captan (purity not specified) at time-weighted
    average doses of 2 525 or 6 050 ppm. The low dosage groups was
    actually given 4 000 ppm for 21 weeks, 2 000 ppm for 59 weeks and
    control diet for 33 weeks. In the case of the high dosage group,
    animals were fed 8 000 ppm for 41 weeks, 4 000 ppm for 39 weeks and
    control diet for 33 weeks. (After 18 weeks, 7 males and 1 female in
    this group had died and were replaced by healthy animals from a
    16 000 ppm-group, on which studies were terminated after 18 weeks
    because of high toxicity.) Pooled control groups, of 75 males and 75
    females (including the 10 male and 10 female matched controls from the
    present study) from similar bioassays of 7 test chemicals, were used
    for statistical comparisons. No dose-related trend pertaining to

    mortality was apparent. At least 60% females of control and treated
    groups were still alive at termination. Survival was slightly lower in
    the males, especially in the high dosage group, with only 46% of
    animals in the latter group surviving the duration of the study.
    Growth retardation occurred in both treated groups throughout the
    study. Tumours were observed in animals of all groups, including the
    controls, and were of types not uncommonly seen in the strain. There
    was no indication of a significant increase in incidence of any
    particular type of tumour. Under the conditions of the bioassay, there
    was no evidence suggestive of carcinogenic activity of captan (NCI

    Special Studies on Mutagenicity

          In vitro microbial assays with tester strains of  Salmonella 
     typhimurium indicated captan to be mutagenic, in the presence of
    metabolic activation, to strains TA 1535, 1537, G46 (Herbold and
    Buselmaier 1976), TA 100, TA 1537 and TA 98 (McCann  et al 1975) and
    to strain TA 1535 without metabolic activation (Seiler 1975).

         Captan was found to be mutagenic in rec-assay with H17 Rec+
    and M45 Rec- strains of  Bacillus subtilis at 20 g/disc and in
    reversion assays with  Escherichia coli (WP2) and  S. typhimurium 
    tester strains TA 1535 at 50 g/plate without inclusion of a metabolic
    activation preparation in the test systems. At this concentration, no
    positive mutagenic response was obtained with  S. typhimurium tester
    strains TA 1536, TA 1537 and TA 1538 (Shirasu  et al 1976).

         Captan was evaluated for its ability to induce forward mutations
    to Colin E2- resistance in repair deficient strains of  E. coli 
    (E-Coli JC 411/CoLE 2+ was used as the colicin-producing strain).
    Positive results were obtained with strains WP2 and WP2 uvr A. No
    mutagenic activity was detected in strains CM561 and CD611, which were
    more sensitive to the toxicity of captan (Bridges  et al 1973).

         In a spot test with selected repair-deficient strains of
     E. coli, filter paper impregnated with captan was placed on an agar
    plate or on the lid of an inverted petri dish to test any volatile
    component of captan. Mutagenic response was obtained in each case with
    all of the  E. coli strains tested, i.e. WP2, WP2 UvrA, WP2 ROC A,
    WP2 ExrA and WP2 UvrA ExrA. The high mutation rates noted in UvrA
    strains, as compared to other tester strains, indicated that much of
    the mutagenic activity probably involved production of a DNA lesion
    detectable and repairable by excision repair. There were indications
    that a large part of the mutagenic activity of captan was caused by a
    short-lived, volatile fraction inducing DNA damage of an excisable
    nature. A second diffusable mutagenic component causing excisable DNA
    damage might also occur (Bridges  et al 1972).

         Captan was evaluated for its potential to induce point mutations
    to 8-azaquanine resistance with  Aspergillus nidulans haploid strain
    35 (pa ba A1, anA1, yA2, meth GI, nic A2, nic B8) and mitotic non-
    disjunction as well as crossing-over with diploid strain P (first
    chromosome: suad E20, ribo A1, faA1, pro A1, paba A1, yA2, ad E20,
    bi A1). The test material was found in the spot test to induce point
    mutation and mitotic crossing over but not non-disjunction (Bignami
     et al 1977).

         A significant dose-related increase in the frequency of sister
    chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations was observed in
    cultured Chinese hamster cells treated with captan at concentrations
    of 6  10-6 M and above (Tezuka  et al 1980).

         The frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes
    exposed to captan  in vitro at a concentration of 3  10-5 M was
    significantly elevated. Higher concentrations of captan were too toxic
    to test for induction of sister chromatid exchanges (Vigfusson and
    Vyse 1980).

         The mutagenicity of captan, as a suspension in buffer and as a
    source of a volatile component, was tested for the induction of
    8-azaguanine and ouabain-resistant mutants in V79-4 Chinese hamster
    lung cell cultures. In cells exposed to the captan suspension, there
    was no increased incidence of 8-azaguanine resistant colonies. An
    increase in the absolute number of ouabain resistant variants,
    however, occurred at low incidence, the frequency being dose-
    dependent. The volatile component from filter paper impregnated with
    captan induced an increase in the number of azaguanine and ouabain
    resistant colonies (Arlett  et al 1975).

         Unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced in cultured SV-40
    transformed human fibroblast cells (VA-4) treated with captan at
    concentrations of 1.0 to 1 000 M. Metabolic activation employing S-9
    mix from rat liver did not significantly modify the activity of the
    compound (Ahmed  et al 1977).

         The transforming potential of technical captan was evaluated
    using the 1-1 subclone of clone A-31 of BALB/3T3 mouse cells or the
    subclone C-14 of clone C1-13. No increase in morphologically
    transformed foci was induced when cells were exposed to the test
    material at concentrations up to 0.1 g/ml for 4 hours in serum-free
    medium or at concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 0.2 g/ml for 3 days
    in foetal bovine serum supplemented medium. Under the conditions of
    the assay, technical captan did not induce morphological
    transformations (Environmental Health Center 1981).

         Captan was among a total of 174 chemicals tests for mutagenicity
    in ICR/Ha Swiss mice using a modified dominant lethal assay. Acute
    intraperitoneal doses of 9 to 30 mg/kg body weight, single oral dose
    at 500 or 800 mg/kg body weight or 5 successive daily oral doses of 25
    or 50 mg/kg body weight/day were given to male mice (5-11 per group)
    prior to mating. Untreated virgin females were mated weekly with
    treated males for 3 or 8 consecutive weeks (i.p. dosing) or for 8
    consecutive weeks (oral treatment). It was indicated that captan was
    among the "agents producing early foetal deaths and pre-implantation
    losses within control limits". Acute intraperitoneal doses of 15 or
    30 mg/kg body weight were fatal to 90-100% of the treated males
    (Epstein  et al 1972).

         In a dominant lethal assay, groups of male Charles River mice
    were fed technical captan in their diet at 0, 500, 3 000 or 7 000 ppm
    for 8 weeks and then mated with untreated female mice weekly for 8
    consecutive weeks. Total weight gain over the 8-week period was
    reduced in males at 7 000 ppm. There was no treatment-related effect
    with respect to fertility rate, the number of implantations, early and
    late resorption or viable foetuses (Salamon  et al 1977).

         Dominant lethal assays were conducted in groups of 15 male mice
    or rats treated with technical captan orally at 0, 50, 100 or
    200 mg/kg body weight/day or intraperitoneally at 0, 2.5, 5.0 or
    10 mg/kg body weight/day for 5 days. The animals were then mated
    weekly with virgin females of the respective species consecutively for
    12 weeks (mice) or 10 weeks (rats). The females were sacrificed on day
    12 or 13 of pregnancy, respectively, for the examination of uterine

         In neither species were compound-related effects seen on
    mortality, pregnancy rate and mean total implantations per pregnancy
    after oral or intraperitoneal exposure. The mean number of early
    deaths per pregnancy was elevated after intraperitoneal treatment at
    10 mg/kg body weight/day for the first 7 weeks in both mice and rats
    and after oral dosing at and above 100 mg/kg body weight/day for the
    first 2 weeks in mice and at all treated levels in the rat. The
    increase in the latter species was indicated to be statistically
    significant at 100 mg/kg body weight/day during week 4 and at
    200 mg/kg body weight/day during weeks 1, 2 and 5. A statistically
    significant linear trend in incidence of litters with two or more
    early deaths was noted in mice practically through the first 7 weeks
    after the intraperitoneal doses and for the first 5 weeks after oral
    treatment, and in rats for weeks 4 and 5 and for weeks 1 and 2
    following intraperitoneal and oral administration, respectively
    (Collins 1972).

         Groups of pregnant mice were fed captan in their diet at 0, 100,
    1 000 or 5 000 ppm on days 6 through 12 of pregnancy in a specific-
    locus somatic cell mutation assay. ("The assay involves exposing

    embryos heterozygous for a number of recessive coat-colour markers to
    the test article and later looking for clones of mutant cells which
    appear as coat colour mosaic patches on otherwise black mice".) The
    newborn pups were scored for spots on day 12 and at weaning. Body
    weight and food consumption were depressed at 5 000 ppm. No treatment-
    related effects were seen on pregnancy rate, litter size, pup survival
    to 12 days or gross abnormalities. There was no increased frequency of
    recessive spots in the treated groups, suggesting no captan-induced
    somatic mutations in the treated mice (Nguyen and Brusick 1980).

    Observations in Humans

         A study was conducted, using a retrospective cohort design, in a
    total of 134 male workers, who had been occupationally exposed to
    technical captan for periods ranging from 3 months to over 20 years.
    All of these individuals worked in a chemical plant producing only
    captan and an analogue of captan. Two-thirds of the study population
    were exposed to captan for less than 5 years. There were 18 deaths in
    the cohort as compared to 11 expected. Two of the deaths were caused
    by tumour of the pancreas and the mediastinum (thymomas),
    respectively. The individual with the mediastinum tumour was one of
    the 16 men employed for 20 or more years. The excess mortality rate
    was primarily attributable to cardiovascular diseases and external
    causes. Neither duodenal cancer nor increased incidence of cancers was
    observed among the study population. Medical records for those
    employees still alive were not available (Palshaw 1980).


         A three-generation reproduction study in rats, as a replacement
    study for the one previously conducted by IBT, did not adequately
    demonstrate a no-effect level on reproduction, although data on F2c
    litters revealed no evidence of teratogenicity. Teratology studies in
    rabbits treated orally and in mice exposed to captan orally,
    subcutaneously or by inhalation were negative. (The latter studies in
    mice were available in the form of an abstract.) In a hamster
    teratology study, while incidence of malformations was probably not
    affected by captan, conclusions with respect to teratogenicity in this
    respect cannot be made with confidence until details of the non-
    specified rib anomalies are made available. If the rib anomalies
    comprised abnormalities of minimal concern, then 50 mg/kg body weight
    might be considered as a no-effect level for the study. A
    carcinogenicity study in Osborne-Mendel rats gave no indication of
    carcinogenic activity. However, an increased incidence of duodenal
    tumours was observed in a bioassay with B6C 3F1 hybrid mice fed
    dietary levels of 8 000 or 16 000 ppm for 80 weeks. This particular
    finding was reportedly confirmed in another 2-year mouse study at
    dietary levels of captan ranging from 6 000 to 16 000 ppm (Stauffer
    1980). It is understood that an additional 2-year study in mice using

    dietary levels of 100 to 6 000 ppm is currently underway (Stauffer
    1980). A 12-month interim report of a new 2-year study (International
    Research and Development 1980) in rats was received, but a complete
    evaluation of the study would depend on availability of the final
    report. Terminal survivors from this study exhibited no compound-
    related lesions in the duodenum, according to a preliminary report of
    histopathological findings in the particular tissue (Arceo 1981).

         A variety of mutagenicity studies were submitted, which provided
    further evidence that captan was mutagenic to most microbial or other
    non-mammalian systems  in vitro and to isolated mammalian cell
    systems. Captan did not induce morphological transformation of
    BALB/3T3 cells  in vitro or somatic cell mutation in mice  in vivo. 
    Results of dominant lethal assays appeared to be equivocal.

         The data provided on the retrospective study in humans, while
    indicating no occurrence of duodenal cancer or increased incidence of
    cancers among the cohort, were of limited value since the majority in
    the study population were exposed to captan for less than five years.

         In view of the concerns with respect to carcinogenicity in mice,
    the inability to demonstrate a no-effect level in the 3-generation
    reproduction study in rats and the finding of the long term/
    carcinogenicity studies in both mice and rats conducted by IBT being
    invalid, the Meeting decided that the full ADI be modified to a
    temporary status.


    Level Causing no Toxicological Effect

    Dog:      100 mg/kg bw/day

    Monkey:   12.5 mg/kg bw/day

    Estimate of Temporary Acceptable Daily Intake for Man

    0 - 0.01 mg/kg bw


    Required (by 1984)

    1.   Final report of the new two-year study in rats.

    2.   Complete report of the two-year study in mice understood to have
         been completed.

    3.   Full data of a new two-year oral carcinogenicity study in mice,
         known to be in progress.

    4.   A two-generation (two litters/generation) reproduction study in
         rats to define a no-effect level on reproduction.


    1.   Details of unspecified rib anomalies in the hamster teratology

    2.   Further observations in humans.

    3.   Full details of the one-generation (one litter) reproduction
         study in rats.


    Ahmed, F.E., Hart, R. and Lewis, N.J. Pesticide induced DNA damage
    1977     and its repair in cultured human cells. Mutat. Res.

    Arceo, R.J. Gross and microscopic examination of the duodenum.
    1981     Report from International Research and Development Corp.
             submitted to the World Health Organization by Stauffer
             Chemical Co. (Unpublished)

    Arlett, C.F., Turnbull, D., Harcourt, B.A., Lehmann, A.R. and
    1975     Colella, C.M. A comparison of the 8-azaguanine and ouabain-
             resistance systems for the selection of induced mutant
             Chinese hamster cells. Mutat. Res. 33:261-278.

    Bignami, M., Aulicino, F., Velcich, A., Carere, A. and Morpurgo, G.
    1977     Mutagenic and recombinogence action of pesticides in
              Aspergillus nidulans. Mutat. Res. 46:395-402.

    Bridges, B.A., Mottershead, R.P., Rothwell, M.H. and Green, M.H.L.
    1972     Repair-deficient bacterial strains unsuitable for
             mutagenicity screening: Test with the fungicide captan.
             Chem. Biol. Interact. 5:77-84.

    Bridges, B.A., Mottershead, R.P. and Colella, C. Induction of
    1973     forward mutations to colicin E2 resistance in repair
             deficient strains of  Escherichia coli: Experiments with
             ultraviolet light and captan. Mutat. Res. 23:303-313.

    Collins, T.F.X. Dominant lethal assay. I. Captan. Food Cosmet.
    1972     Toxicol. 10:353-361.

    Couch, R.C., Siegel, M.R. and Dorough, H.W. Fate of captan and
    1977     folpet in rats and their effects on isolated liver nuclei.
             Pestic. Biochem. and Physiol. 7:547-558.

    Courtney, K.D., Andres, J.E. and Stevens, J.T. Inhalation teratology
    1978     studies with captan and folpet. Toxicol. appl. Pharmacol.

    Environmental Health Center. Captan technical (Lot No. 5093-25-1).
    1981     Morphological transformation of BALB/3T3 cells. Report from
             Environmental Health Center, Stauffer Chemical Co. submitted
             to the World Health Organization by Stauffer Chemical Co.

    Epstein, S.S., Arnold, E., Andrea, J., Bacs, W. and Bishop, Y.
    1972     Detection of chemical mutagens by the dominant lethal assay
             in the mouse. Toxicol. appl. Pharmacol. 23:288-325.

    Goldenthal, E.I. Pilot teratology study in hamster. Report from
             International Research and Development Corp. submitted to
             the World Health Organization by Stauffer Chemical Co.

    Goldenthal, E.I., Jessop, D.C. and Rodwell, D.E. Captan teratology
             study in hamsters. Report from International Research and
             Development Corp., U.S.A. submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Stauffer Chemical Co. (Unpublished)

    Herbold, B. and Buselmaier, W. Induction of point mutations by
    1976     different chemical mechanisms in the liver microsomal assay.
             Mutation Research, 40:73-84.

    International Research and Development. Captan technical, SX 944
    1980     2-year oral toxicity/carcinogenicity study of captan in rats
             (12-month interim). Report from International Research and
             Development Corp. submitted to the World Health Organization
             by Stauffer Chemical Co. (Unpublished)

    1982a    Captan three generation reproduction study in rats. Report
             from International Research and Development Corp. submitted
             to the World Health Organization by Stauffer Chemical Co.

    1982b    One-generation reproduction study in rats with captan.
             Status report from International Research and Development
             Corp. submitted to the World Health Organization by Stauffer
             Chemical Co. (Unpublished)

    McCann, J., Choi, E., Yamasaki, E. and Ames, B.N. Detection of
    1975     carcinogens as mutagens in the salmonella/microsome test:
             Assay of 300 chemicals. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.

    Miaullis, J.B., Quale, D.C., Vispetto, A.R. and DeBaun, J.R. Effect
    1980     of dietary captan on soluble thiol content of liver and
             duodenal tissues. Report from Stauffer Chemical Co.
             submitted to the World Health Organization by Stauffer
             Chemical Co. (Unpublished)

    NCI.     Bioassay of captan for possible carcinogenicity. National
    1977     Cancer Institute. Carcinogenesis Technical Report Series No.
             15. D.H.E.W. Publication No. (NIH) 77-815.

    Nguyen, T.D. and Brusick, D.J. Mutagenic evaluation of captan in the
    1980     somatic cell mutation assay. Final report from Litton
             Bionetics, Inc., U.S.A. submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Stauffer Chemical Co. (Unpublished)

    Palmer, A.K., Barton, S.J. and Clark, R. Effect of technical captan
    1981     on pregnancy of the New Zealand White rabbit. Huntingdon
             Research Centre, England, submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Stauffer Chemical Co. (Unpublished)

    Palshaw, M.W. An epidemiologic study of mortality within a cohort of
             captan workers. Report from Stauffer Chemical Co. submitted
             to the World Health Organization by Stauffer Chemical Co.

    Salamon, C., Smith, S., Kennedy, G.L., Kineshita, F.K. and
    1977     Keplinger, M.L. Dominant lethal study with captan technical
             in albino mice exposed for 8 weeks to the chemical in the
             diet. Report from Industrial Bio-Test Laboratories, Inc.,
             submitted to the World Health Organization by Stauffer
             Chemical Co. (The study was recently validated by the
             Canadian Government.) (Unpublished)

    Seiler, J.P. Evaluation of some pesticides for mutagenicity. Proc.
    1975     of the Eur. Soc. Toxicol. 17:398-404.

    Shirasu, Y., Moriya, M., Kato, K. Furuhashi, A. and Kada, T.
    1976     Mutagenicity screening of pesticides in the microbial
             system. Mutat. Res. 40:19-30.

    Stauffer, Captan RPAR risk rebuttal and summaries of benefits. Pages
             5 and 19, Volume 1. Document prepared by Stauffer Chemical
             Co. November 26, 1980, submitted to the World Health
             Organization by Stauffer Chemical Co. (Unpublished)

    Tezuka, H., Ando, N., Suzuki, R., Terahata, M., Moriya, M. and
    1980     Shirasu, Y. Sister-chromatid exchanges and chromosomal
             aberrations in cultured Chinese hamster cells treated with
             pesticides positive in microbial reversion assays. Mutat.
             Res. 78:177-191.

    Vigfusson, N.V., Vyse, E.R. The effect of the pesticides, dexon,
    1980     captan and round-up on sister-chromatid exchanges in human
             lymphocytes in vitro. Mutat. Res. 79:53-57.

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Captan (HSG 50, 1990)
       Captan (ICSC)
       Captan (PIM 098)
       Captan (FAO/PL:1969/M/17/1)
       Captan (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 3)
       Captan (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 4)
       Captan (Pesticide residues in food: 1977 evaluations)
       Captan (Pesticide residues in food: 1978 evaluations)
       Captan (Pesticide residues in food: 1980 evaluations)
       Captan (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Captan (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Captan (Pesticide residues in food: 1990 evaluations Toxicology)
       Captan (Pesticide residues in food: 1995 evaluations Part II Toxicological & Environmental)
       Captan (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 30, 1983)