1968 EVALUATIONS OF SOME PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD
Issued jointly by FAO and WHO
The content of this document is the result of the deliberations of the
Joint Meeting of the FAO Working Party of Experts and the WHO Expert
Committee on Pesticide Residues, which met in Geneva, 9-16 December,
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
Since the previous evaluation (FAO/WHO, 1968) additional data have
become available and are summarized and discussed in the following
RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THEIR EVALUATION
During the Third Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues,
five problems in connection with this compound were referred back to
the 1968 Joint Meeting, as follows:
1. Clarification of the term "vegetables and small fruits" contained
in the 1967 Joint Meeting report,
2. Reconsideration of the residue limit in raw cereals,
3. Reconsideration of practical residue limit in meat,
4. Consideration of the necessity of a practical residue limit in
5. Consideration of the establishment of tolerances in cocoa beans
and derived products.
In New Zealand about 2.52 kg/ha may be used for soil treatment (New
Lindane is widely used in storage and shipping of cereals. Direct
admixtures may be in the range of 2.2 ppm (United Kingdom, 1968).
Residues resulting from supervised trials
After pre-harvest treatment, residues on total cocoa-beans range
between 0.05 and 0.5 ppm, but available residue data are not
sufficient for recommending a tolerance.
In New Zealand the following residues were found in fat of sheep,
grazing on a treated area (Collett and Harrison, 1968):
Weeks after application Range Mean
16 - 22 0.7 - 1.2 0.9
26 - 30 0.4 - 2.1 1.1
52 - 58 0.4 - 0.8 0.5
Evidence of residues in food in commerce or at consumption
The following table shows residues found in Japan:
Food Maximum Average
Apples 0.088 0.012
Grapes 0.030 0.001
Cucumbers 0.240 0.01
Tomatoes 0.176 0.01
(Motohashi, private communication).
On arrival in Great Britain, grain samples contained less than 0.1
ppm lindane, the exceptions being the following (United Kingdom,
Residue Origin of
Sample (ppm) shipment
Wheat 0.2 - 0.3 Argentina
Dust from surface
of wheat 0.8 France
wheat 0.6 Romania
Wheat from the
girders of ship 0.25
Many poultry feeds contain lindane residues up to 0.2 ppm (Australia,
1968) thus accounting for the presence of lindane residues of from 0
to 0.2 ppm in egg yolk (only 2 per cent contained more than 0.2 ppm)
(Australia, 1968). In the United States of America, 6 per cent of
domestic and 9.5 per cent of imported shell eggs contained residues
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TOLERANCES AND PRACTICAL RESIDUE LIMITS
In respect to the request for clarification of temporary tolerances of
small fruit the meeting recommends that this recommendation be
re-worded as follows: 3 ppm in vegetables, strawberries, cherries,
plums, grapes and cranberries.
In respect to the residue limit in raw cereals, the meeting felt that
0.5 ppm should be retained as a temporary tolerance to cover the
residues resulting from the use of this compound in accordance with
good agricultural practice.
In respect to the necessity for raising the practical residue limit
for lindane in meat from 0.7 ppm to 2 ppm, data are available which
show that lindane in fat of sheep ranges from 0.2 to 2.1 ppm, thus
justifying raising this limit to 2 ppm.
In respect to the establishment of a practical residue limit in egg
yolk, data were furnished indicating that unintentional residues
sometimes slightly exceeding 0.2 ppm were sometimes encountered thus
justifying the establishment of a practical residue limit in egg yolk
at 0.2 ppm.
In respect to the request for the establishment of tolerances for
residues in cocoa beans and derived products, the meeting agreed that
information was insufficient to provide a basis for a recommendation.
The previously recommended temporary tolerances, to be in effect until
1970, are to apply to the following commodities:
Raw cereals 0.5 ppm
Vegetables 3.0 ppm
Cranberries, cherries, grapes,
plums and strawberries 3.0 ppm
Practical residue limits
In addition to the previously recommended practical residue limits, to
be in effect until 1970:
Whole milk 0.004 ppm
Milk products (on a fat basis) 0.1 ppm
The meeting also recommends the following practical residue limits to
be in effect until 1970:
Eggs (yolk) 0.2 ppm
Meat (on a fat basis) 2.0 ppm
In the case of fruit and vegetables the tolerances should be applied
as soon as practicable after harvest and in any event prior to actual
retail to the public. In the case of commodities entering
international trade, the tolerances should be applied by the importing
country at the point of entry or as soon as practicable thereafter.
Further work or information
Required before 30 June 1970
1. Further information on the nature of terminal residues in plants,
animals and their products.
2. Further data on the required rates and frequencies of
application, pre-harvest intervals and the resultant residues.
3. Further data on residues occurring in cocoa and cocoa products.
4. Further data on residues resulting from supervised trials of bin,
ship-hold and other storage or conveyance treatments.
Collett J. N. and Harrison, D. L. (1968) Lindane residues on pasture
and in the fat of sheep grazing pasture treated with lindane prills.
N.Z.J. Agric. Res., 11: 589-600
FAO/WHO. (1968) 1967 Evaluations of some pesticide residues in food
(FAO, PL:1967/M/11/1; WHO/Food Add./68.30)
New Zealand. (1968) Submission of the CCPR delegation of New Zealand
United Kingdom. (1968) Submission of the CCPR delegation of the United
Kingdom to FAO.