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    LINDANE      JMPR 1978

    Explanation

         Lindane was first evaluated In 1965 (FAO/WHO, 1965b) and
    re-evaluated at intervals thereafter (FAO/WHO, 1967b, 1968b, 1969b,
    1970b, 1972b, 1974b, 1975b, 1976b, 1978b). An early request from
    the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues was for information
    relating to cocoa beans and cocoa products. Data received in 1975
    resulted in a recommended MRL for cocoa beans of 1 mg/kg. The
    present Meeting received further information on cocoa products
    which is evaluated below. Additionally, available information on
    lindane residues in dairy products wee re-examined in the light of
    the existing use patterns.

    RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THEIR EVALUATION

    RESIDUES IN FOOD MOVING IN COMMERCE

    Dairy products

         Previous evaluations of lindane and HCH (formerly referred to
    as BHC) were examined for information on residues in milk and milk
    products with the results shown in Table 1.

         From these it was estimated that a maximum residue limit of
    0.01 mg/kg for whole milk (expressed on the whole product because
    milk contains less than 8% fat), equivalent to 0.2 mg/kg (fat
    basis), would be more appropriate than the current recommended
    value of 0.1 mg/kg (fat basis).

    Cocoa beans and cocoa products

         The Meeting was provided with Information collected by the
    Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionary Alliance on residues in cocoa
    beans and cocoa products in commerce which is summarized in Tables
    2-5.

    APPRAISAL

         The Meeting received the information on residue levels
    occurring in cocoa beans and cocoa products in commerce listed as
    desirable by the Joint Meeting in 1973. It was noted that an MRL of
    1 mg/kg in cocoa beans was recommended by the Meeting in 1975 but
    the detailed data were not presented in the monograph. The present
    data support the previous MRL for cocoa beans and indicate that the
    value of 1 mg/kg would be unlikely to be exceeded by cocoa products
    in commerce.

         Information was received from several sources on the
    increasing need for the direct application of lindane to meat and
    dairy animals, especially in tropical areas, for the control of
    ectoparasites. This use pattern can lead to significant short-term

        TABLE 1. Summary of previously evaluated information on residues of lindane in dairy products

                                                                                                  

    Commodity                Number of samples         Range                 Source
                             containing residues       mg/kg
                                                                                                  

    Milk (fat basis)                 60                0.001 - 0.18          FAO/WHO, 1976 p. 137

    Butter                           138               0.001 - 0.40          FAO/WHO, 1976 p. 137

    Milk (whole)                not specified          mean = 0.006          FAO/WHO, 1968 p. 170

    Butter                      not specified          0.01 - 0.07           FAO/WHO, 1968 p. 170

    Dairy products                   42%               0.001 - 0.01          FAO/WHO, 1969 p. 22

    Dairy products              not specified          domestic 0.005        FAO/WHO, 1969 p. 24
                                                       imported 0.01

    Milk                        not specified          0.001 - 0.004         FAO/WHO, 1969 p. 25

    Milk (fat basis)                 260               maximum 0.11          FAO/WHO, 1969 p. 25
                                                       average 0.02

    Butter                           260               average 0.01          FAO/WHO, 1969 p. 25

    Milk fat                         133               0.006 - 0.157         WHO/FAO, 1974b p. 320

    Raw milk                    not specified          trace 0.03            WHO/FAO, 1974b p. 320

    Milk                        not specified          0.01 - 0.22           WHO/FAO, 1974b p. 320

    Butter                      not specified          0.01 - 0.46           WHO/FAO, 1974b p. 321
                                                                                                  

    

    
    TABLE 2. Lindane residues in unroasted cocoa beans

                                                                                                                  

                                                         Class range, mg/kg - No. samples in each
                                                                                                                  

    Origin              Not            nd        0.001-    0.011-    0.031-    0.051-    0.101-    0.201-    0.301
                        Determined               0.010     0.030     0.050     0.100     0.200     0.300     0.400
                                                                                                                  

    GHANA                              11           6        1                                     2
                                       15           4        1                                     1
                        2               3           5        7                 3
    NIGERIA             4                           1        6                 2                   1
                                        2          13        1                 1                   1
                        4                           2        6       3         4         1                   1
    GRANADA             2                                    2
                        1                                            1                   1
    NEW GUINEA                                               1       1
                                                    1        3                                               1
    ECUADOR             2               2                    2                 1
    TRINIDAD                                        2        1       1         1
                                        1           1        1                 1
    JAMAICA                                                          1                   1
                                        2           1
    BRAZIL                              1                    1       1
    CAMEROON                            1                    1       1
    WEST AFRICA                         2
    MALAYA                              1
    SIERRA LEONE                        1
    IVORY COAST                         1
    MIXED ORIGIN                                    3        1                           2

    TOTALS              15             43          39       35       9         13        5         5         2
                                                                                                                  
            nd = < 0.001 mg/kg
    

    
    TABLE 3. Lindane residues in roasted cocoa beans

                                                                                   

    Origin         Total no. of        Range, mg/kg -           Actual value, mg/kg
                   samples analysed    no. of samples in
                                       each
                                                       

                                       nd          0.051
                                                   0.100
                                                                                   

    ECUADOR              3             1           2

    TRINIDAD             1             1
                         1                                           0.014

    JAMAICA              1                                           0.013

    GRANADA              1                                           0.018

    NEW GUINEA           1                                           0.010

    IVORY COAST          1                                           0.017

    NIGERIA              1                                           0.048
                         1                                           0.006

    CWA                  1                                           0.064

    GHANA                1                                           0.007
                                                                                   
    

        TABLE 4. Lindane residues in cocoa mass

                                                                                                            

                                           Range, mg/kg. No. of samples in each
                                                                                       

    Origin              0.001-      0.011-      0.031-      0.051-      0.101-      0.501-      Actual value,
                        0.010       0.030       0.050       0.100       0.200       0.600       mg/kg
                                                                                                            

    UNKNOWN             1                                                                       0.003

    GHANA                                       1                                               0.038

    NIGERIA                         1                                                           0.018

    WEST AFRICA         11          5                                                           Range =
                                    21          19          23          16          1           0.002-0.018

                                                                                                Range =
                                                                                                0.001-0.530
                                                                                                            

    TABLE 5. Lindane residues in cocoa butter

                                                                                                                           
                                                            Range, mg/kg. No. of samples in each
                                                                                                          
    Origin              Total no. of        nd        0.001-    0.011-    0.031-    0.051-    0.101-    0.201     Actual
                        samples analysed              0.010     0.030     0.050     0.100     0.200     0.300     value
                                                                                                                  mg/kg
                                                                                                                           
    UNKNOWN                    5            2         1                   1                   1                   Range =
                                                                                                                  nd-0.140

    NIGERIA                    1            1                                                                     <0.001
                               1                                1                                                 0.027

    GHANA                      1                                                    1                             0.057

    WEST AFRICA                1                                1                                                 0.019
                               1                                1                                                 0.027
                              13                                2         5         3         3                   Range =
                                                                                                                  0.020-
                                                                                                                  0.160
                               1                                                              1                   0.120
                               1                                                              1                   0.200
                               1                                                                                  0.390
                               4                                          1         3                             Range =
                                                                                                                  0.031-
                                                                                                                  0.058
                              40                      6         11        5         8         9         1         Range =
                                                                                                                  0.003-
                                                                                                                  0.210
                              83                                5         6         37        28        7         Range =
                                                                                                                  0.001-
                                                                                                                  0.290

    SOUTH AFRICA               1                                                                                  2.5
                               1                                                                                  2.3
                               4                                4                                                 Range =
                                                                                                                  0.012-
                                                                                                                  0.022
                                                                                                                           
    

    residues in milk from individual animals or specific herds, but the
    practice of blending milk from many herds in commercial dairies would 
    normally be expected to reduce the residues to less than the 
    extraneous residue limit of 0.2 mg/kg in milk (fat basis) currently 
    recommended by the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues. The Meeting 
    recognized the need to increase the previously recommended limit for 
    milk from 0.1 mg/kg (fat basis) to 0.2 mg/kg to reflect the continued 
    wide use of lindane directly on lactating animals. However, such use 
    is not considered good agricultural practice in many countries 
    (FAO/WHO, 1974b, p. 321). A re-examination of all previous data on 
    milk residues supplied to the Meeting showed that a maximum residue 
    limit of 0.01 mg/kg in whole milk could be recommended. This figure 
    is equivalent to 0.2 mg/kg on a fat basis.

         The recommendations which follow apply only to residues arising
    from the use of lindane and not to those arising from the use of HCH
    (formerly referred to as BHC mixed isomers), which should be
    discouraged.

    RECOMMENDATIONS

         Owing to a change in use pattern, the extraneous residue limits
    for milk and milk products are reclassified as maximum residue limits.
    The limit for milk is increased and expressed on a whole milk basis.
    Additional MRLs are recommended for cocoa butter and cocoa mass.

              Commodity                     Maximum residue limit, mg/kg

              Milk (whole)                  0.01
              Milk products (fat basis)     0.12
              Cocoa butter                  1
              Cocoa mass                    1

    FURTHER WORK OR INFORMATION

    Desirable

    1.   Results from supervised trials on the direct application of
    lindane to dairy animals in a manner needed for ectoparasite control
    and the resulting residues in milk from single animals, herds and
    commercial dairies.

    REFERENCE

    Anonymous Data collected by the Cocoa, Chocolate, and Confectionery
    (1978)              Alliance submitted by J.M. LynÚs, Ministry of
                        Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, UK.
    


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Lindane (EHC 124, 1991)
       Lindane (HSG 54, 1991)
       Lindane (ICSC)
       Lindane (PIM 859)
       Lindane (FAO Meeting Report PL/1965/10/1)
       Lindane (FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1)
       Lindane (JMPR Evaluations 2002 Part II Toxicological)
       Lindane (FAO/PL:1968/M/9/1)
       Lindane (FAO/PL:1969/M/17/1)
       Lindane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 3)
       Lindane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 4)
       Lindane (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 5)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1977 evaluations)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1979 evaluations)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1989 evaluations Part II Toxicology)
       Lindane (Pesticide residues in food: 1997 evaluations Part II Toxicological & Environmental)