ENDOSULFAN      JMPR 1974


         Endosulfan was previously evaluated at the Joint Meetings of
    1967, 1968, and 1971 (FAO/WHO 1968, 1969, 1973). The recommendation
    for a temporary tolerance of 2 mg/kg in fruit and vegetables made by
    the 1968 JMPR was confirmed in 1971 and additional tolerances of 0.5
    mg/kg in cottonseed and 0.2 mg/kg in crude cottonseed oil were
    recommended. The tolerances were to include residues of the two
    stereoisomers, endosulfan A and B, and the metabolite endosulfan

         The 1974 Joint Meeting has been asked to consider the following
    requests with respect to the recommended tolerances.

    1.   The Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR) has requested
         that the recommended tolerance of 2 mg/kg on the broad commodity
         groups fruits and vegetables be reconsidered with a view to
         establishing specific tolerances based on data requested from
         member governments (Alinorm 74/24).

    2.   The CCPR further requested clarification of the commodity
         definition for rice in the 1971 JMPR evaluation (item E [33], CX
         4/40, PL 15/8).

    3.   A request was made that the present tolerances of 0.5 mg/kg in
         cottonseed be increased to 1 mg/kg.



         The fate of endosulfan in plants and animals has been previously
    evaluated and there is no new information which would revise earlier
    opinion that the residues of toxicological concern are endosulfan A,
    endosulfan B, and endosulfan sulphate. Endosulfan is generally
    regarded as a non-systemic insecticide and crop residues are
    essentially on the surface. The residues to be regulated in cottonseed
    are those that occur on the ginned seed as the article of commerce and
    in the crude cottonseed oil. Data show that residues are located on
    the lint and hulls of the raw cottonseed and not translocated.
    Residues reported in oil are probably due to physical transfer during
    the crushing operation. Trace residues are also found in meal and
    fractions from the edible oil refining process. Residues in milk and
    animal tissues are concentrated in the fat of these commodities.


    1. Fruits and vegetables

         Four countries responded to the request of the CCPR for residue
    data to support adjustment of the present 2 mg/kg tolerance on fruits
    and vegetables. Unfortunately, the residue data included analyses for
    only the A and B isomers. Presumably the national tolerances in those
    countries cover only those residue components whereas the recommended
    JMPR tolerances include the sulphate metabolite. The ratios of the
    endosulfan sulphate residues to the other components in crops are too
    variable to calculate the total residue.

         The 1974 JMPR recognizes the desirability of lower tolerances on
    specific fruits and vegetables. The data which are available would
    indicate that lower tolerances would be justifiable for certain
    fruits and vegetables under the uses practiced in certain countries.
    Because of the variation in national agricultural practices (dosage
    rates, spray schedules and pre-harvest intervals) it is not possible
    to conclude that a tolerance lower than 2 mg/kg would be adequate for
    the needs of all countries. However, there is sufficient information
    to permit lower tolerances on specific root crops which are known to
    incur residues of a lower order. These would include carrots,
    potatoes, sweet potatoes, and bulb onions for which a tolerance of 0.2
    mg/kg would be appropriate.

    2. Cottonseed

         The data submitted to support the proposal for a 1 mg/kg
    tolerance in cottonseed are apparently the data evaluated in the 1971
    JMPR, which resulted in the recommendation for the present 0.5 mg/kg
    tolerance. The difference in interpretation of good agricultural
    practice with respect to dosages applied and the percentage of bolls
    open at the time of application may account for the different
    conclusions as to an appropriate tolerance. Thus, under somewhat
    exaggerated conditions of usage, with respect to both dosage and
    percentage of open bolls, total residues up to 1.16 mg/kg were
    reported in ginned seed and 0.28 mg/kg in crude oil. The data would
    indicate that under conditions of use as registered in the USA and
    Australia, (a dosage maximum of 1.5 kg a.i./ha applied before bolls
    open and up to 0.80 kg/hectare when up to 25% of bolls are open) a 1
    mg/kg tolerance would be more appropriate. The formulations include
    emulsifiable concentrates, wettable powders and dusts.

         Cottonseed hulls and meal are components of animal feeds. It was
    noted in the evaluation by the 1967 JMPR that animals fed endosulfan
    secreted trace residues in milk and stored trace residues in meat fat.
    The 1968 JMPR noted a study on the fate of endosulfan in the
    processing of milk, which showed that some residues remained in
    condensed, spray dried and evaporated milk. Analytical methods
    suitable for determination in milk fat and meat fat at the 0.1 mg/kg
    level are available. Endosulfan A, endosulfan B and endosulfan

    sulphate are recovered by the official AOAC method for chlorinated
    compounds (fat method). Residues were reported in cottonseed meal at
    0.04 mg/kg and in hulls at 0.04 and 1.1 mg/kg. Cottonseed meal or
    hulls may constitute up to 30% of various animal diets. Feeding
    studies show that residues in milk fat or meat fat from this level in
    the feed would not exceed the maximum limits shown in the


         Methods are available for the satisfactory determination of
    endosulfan A, endosulfan B and endosulfan sulphate. All methods are
    based on GLC with either microcoulometric, electron capture or flame
    photometric detection and were discussed in detail in previous
    evaluations. All three residue components are also measured by the
    AOAC multiresidue method for chlorinated pesticides.



    Country          Commodity                                    Tolerance

    Australia1       Fat of meat of cattle and sheep              0.2
                     Milk and milk products                       0.5
                                                                  (fat basis)
                     Fruits, grains, vegetables,
                     cottonseed                                   1.0

    Canada2          Peas                                         0.5
                     Artichokes, beans, cauliflower,
                     celery, cucumber, eggplant, grapes,
                     melons, peppers, pumpkins, squash,
                     strawberries, tomatoes, watercress           1.0
                     Apples, apricots, broccoli,
                     Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cherries,
                     lettuce, nectarines, peaches, pears,
                     plums, prunes, spinach                       2.0

    New Zealand3     Fruits and vegetables                        2.0

    Netherlands3     Berries, mushrooms                           1.0
                     Fruit (except berries) and
                     vegetables                                   0.5
                     Potatoes                                     0.1

    South Africa2    Cabbage, green beans, boysenberries,
                     youngberries, tomatoes, cucurbits,
                     peas, citrus                                 2.0
                     Peaches, apples, pears                       0.5


    Country          Commodity                                    Tolerance

    USA1             Apples, apricots, artichokes, beans,
                     broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage,
                     cauliflower, celery, cherries,
                     collards, cucumbers, eggplant,
                     grapes, kale, lettuce, melons,
                     mustard greens, nectarines, peaches,
                     pears, peas, peppers, pineapple,
                     plums, prunes, pumpkins, spinach,
                     strawberries, summer squash, sunflower
                     seed, tomatoes, turnip greens,
                     watercress, winter squash                    2.0
                     Alfalfa hay, almond hulls,
                     cottonseed                                   1.0
                     Milk fat, sugarcane                          0.5
                     Alfalfa (fresh)                              0.3
                     Carrots, sweet corn, sweet potatoes,
                     meat, fat of meat of cattle, goats,
                     pigs, horses, sheep                          0.2
                     Blueberries, grain of barley, oats,
                     rye, wheat, sugar beets                      0.1

    1 Includes endosulfan A and D, and endosulfan sulphate.

    2 Includes endosulfan A and B.

    3 Residue not specified.


         The CCPR referred to the Joint Meeting a request that the
    recommended 2 mg/kg tolerances (JMPR 1971) for endosulfan residues on
    fruits and vegetables be re-examined to determine whether tolerances
    on specific crops at levels reflecting actual residues could be
    recommended. Four countries responded to the request for data to
    support the proposed changes. Essentially all of the residue data made
    available included analyses for the A and B isomers but not for the
    endosulfan sulphate metabolite, which is now regarded as a significant
    component of endosulfan residues. The present recommended tolerance
    (JMPR 1971) is expressed as total residues of endosulfan A, endosulfan
    B, and endosulfan sulphate. The Joint Meeting was not able to conclude
    that the data made available would generally support individual
    tolerances on fruits and vegetables at levels below the present 2
    mg/kg. The Meeting does, however, recognize the desirability of lower
    tolerances whenever possible and in that interest can recommend a

    lower tolerance on certain crops which are known to incur residues of
    a low order. These include carrots, potatoes, sweet potatoes, and bulb
    onions, for which a tolerance of 0.2 mg/kg would be appropriate.
    Further consideration can be given to other tolerances on individual
    crops as additional information on use patterns and residues in other
    countries becomes available.

         Tolerances of 0.5 mg/kg for total residues of endosulfan A,
    endosulfan B, and endosulfan sulfate in cottonseed and 0.2 mg/kg in
    crude cottonseed oil were recommended by the 1971 JMPR. No additional
    data were made available to support a request to the 1974 JMPR to
    increase the tolerance to 1 mg/kg in cottonseed. However, a
    re-evaluation of the original data in relation to the use of the
    product as presently practised in the US and Australia indicates that
    a 1 mg/kg tolerance would be appropriate to cover total residues of
    endosulfan A, endosulfan B, and endosulfan sulphate in ginned
    cottonseed. Proportionally, a tolerance of 0.5 mg/kg would be
    appropriate for crude cottonseed oil.

         Feeding studies show that trace residues can be expected in the
    milk of cattle fed cottonseed meal and hulls, and in the fat of meat
    of animals. Practical residue limits are indicated for these

         The question referred to the Joint Meeting by the CCPR regarding
    clarification of the commodity definition for rice in the tolerance
    recommended by the 1971 JMPR has been considered. It was agreed that
    the term "rice (unpeeled)" is inappropriate and should be changed to
    "rice, in husk."

         The further data requested by the 1971 JMPR were not made
    available but are not pertinent to the adjustment of cottonseed
    tolerances or the proposals regarding revisions of the fruit and
    vegetable tolerances.


         The following tolerances are for the sum of endosulfan A and B
    and endosulfan sulphate, expressed as endosulfan.

    TOLERANCES                                            mg/kg

    Tea (dry, manufactured)                              30

    Fruits                                                2

    Vegetables (other than exceptions noted)              2

    Carrots, potatoes, sweet potatoes, bulb
     onions                                               0.2*

    Cottonseed                                            1.0*

    Cottonseed oil (crude)                                0.4*

    Rice, in husk                                         0.1*


    Milk and milk products (fat basis)                    0.5*

    Fat of meat                                           0.2*

    * New Limit



         Additional residue studies in which total residues of endosulfan
    A and B and endosulfan sulphate are measured and related to the
    agricultural practices in those countries with registered uses.


    FAO/WHO. (1968) 1967 Evaluations of some pesticide residues in food.
    FAO/PL/1967/M/11/1; WHO/Food Add./68.30.

    FAO/WHO. (1969) 1968 Evaluations of some pesticide residues in food.
    FAO/PL/1968/M/9/1; WHO/Food Add./69.35.

    FAO/WHO. (1973) 1971 Evaluations of some pesticide residues in food.
    AGP/1971/M/9/1; WHO Pesticide Residue Series, No. 1.

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Endosulfan (EHC 40, 1984)
       Endosulfan (HSG 17, 1988)
       Endosulfan (PIM 576)
       Endosulfan (FAO Meeting Report PL/1965/10/1)
       Endosulfan (FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1)
       Endosulfan (FAO/PL:1968/M/9/1)
       Endosulfan (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 1)
       Endosulfan (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 5)
       Endosulfan (Pesticide residues in food: 1982 evaluations)
       Endosulfan (Pesticide residues in food: 1989 evaluations Part II Toxicology)
       Endosulfan (JMPR Evaluations 1998 Part II Toxicological)