Health and Safety Guide No. 30






    This is a companion volume to Environmental Health Criteria 97:

    Published by the World Health Organization for the International
    Programme on Chemical Safety (a collaborative programme of the United
    Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation,
    and the World Health Organization)

    ISBN 92 4 154351 5

    World Health Organization 1989

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright
    protection in accordance with the provisions of Protocol 2 of the
    Universal Copyright Convention.  For rights of reproduction or
    translation of WHO publications, in part or  in toto, application
    should be made to the Office of Publications, World 

    Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.  The World Health
    Organization welcomes such applications.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this
    publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on
    the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organization
    concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area
    or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers
    or boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers'
    products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the
    World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature
    that are not mentioned.  Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
    proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.

    This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization.



         1.1. Identity
         1.2. Physical and chemical properties
         1.3. Analytical methods
         1.4. Production and uses

         2.1. Human exposure
         2.2. Environmental exposure and fate
         2.3. Uptake, metabolism, and excretion
         2.4. Effects on organisms in the environment
         2.5. Effects on experimental animals and in vitro
              test systems
         2.6. Effects on human beings

         3.1. Conclusions
         3.2. Recommendations

         4.1. Human health hazards, prevention and protection, first aid
              4.1.1. Advice to physicians
              4.1.2. Health surveillance advice
         4.2. Explosion and fire hazards
         4.3. Storage
         4.4. Transport
         4.5. Spillage and disposal
              4.5.1. Spillage
              4.5.2. Disposal



         7.1. Previous evaluations by international bodies
         7.2. Exposure limit values
         7.3. Specific restrictions
         7.4. Labelling, packaging, and transport
         7.5. Waste disposal



    The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) documents produced by the
    International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of
    the effects on the environment and on human health from exposure to a
    chemical or combinations of chemicals, or physical or biological
    agents.  They also provide guidelines for setting exposure limits.

    The purpose of a Health and Safety Guide is to facilitate the
    application of these guidelines in national chemical safety 
    programmes.  The first three sections of a Health and Safety Guide
    highlight the relevant technical information in the corresponding EHC. 
    Section 4 includes advice on preventive and protective measures and
    emergency action; health workers should be thoroughly familiar with
    the medical information to ensure that they can act efficiently in an
    emergency.  Within the Guide is an International Chemical Safety Card
    which should be readily available and clearly explained to all who
    could come into contact with the chemical.  The section on regulatory
    information has been extracted from the legal file of the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) and from
    other United Nations sources.

    The target readership includes those in the occupational health
    services, ministries, governmental agencies, industry, and trade
    unions who deal with the safe use of chemicals and the prevention of
    environmental health hazards, and those workers who want more
    information on this topic.  An attempt has been made to use only terms
    that will be familiar to the intended user.  However, sections 1 and 2
    inevitably contain some technical terms.  A bibliography has been
    included for readers who would like to have further background

    Revision of the information in this Guide will take place in due
    course, and the eventual aim is to use standardized terminology. 
    Comments on any difficulties encountered in using the Guide would be
    very helpful and should be addressed to:

    The Manager
    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Division of Environmental Health
    World Health Organization
    1211 Geneva 27



    1.1  Identity

    Common name:                  Deltamethrin

    Chemical structure:


    Molecular formula:            C22H19Br2NO3

    Synonyms and trade names:     Butoflin, Butox, Cislin, Decamethrin,
                                  Decis, FMC 45498, K-Obiol, K-Othrine,
                                  NRDC 161, RU 22 974, WHO 1998 (OMS

    CAS registry no:              52918-63-5

    Relative molecular mass:      505.24

    Deltamethrin is a synthetic dibromo-pyrethroid.  Of the eight possible
    stereoisomers, it contains only the d-cis isomer.  Technical grade
    deltamethrin is more than 98% pure.

    It is mainly formulated as emulsifiable concentrates (25-100 g/litre),
    ultra-low volume concentrates (1.5-30 g/litre), wettable powders
    (25-50 g/litre), flowable powders (7.5-50 g/litre), or dust powders
    (0.5-2 g/kg).

    1.2  Physical and Chemical Properties

    The technical product is an odourless white crystalline powder, almost
    insoluble in water, but soluble in many organic solvents. 
    Deltamethrin is stable to light, heat (for 6 months at 40 C), and
    air, but unstable in alkaline media.  Some physical and chemical
    properties of deltamethrin are given in the International Chemical
    Safety Card (section 6).

    1.3  Analytical Methods

    Gas chromatography with electron-capture detection is used for residue
    and environmental analysis, the minimum detection level being 0.01 ppm
    or less, depending on the substrate.  High-performance liquid
    chromatography with UV detection can be used for product analysis.

    1.4  Production and Uses

    In 1987, the annual worldwide production and consumption of technical
    grade deltamethrin was about 250 tonnes.

    It is mostly used on cotton (45% of the consumption) and on crops such
    as coffee, maize, wheat, rapeseed, soya beans, fruit, vegetables, and
    hops.  It is also used in public health programmes, and to protect
    stored crops, primarily cereal grains.  It is used in animal
    facilities and against cattle infestation.


    2.1  Human Exposure

    The general population may be exposed to deltamethrin through its use
    in public health measures, but more frequently via residues in food. 
    Residue levels in crops treated according to good agricultural
    practices are generally very low, except in the case of post-harvest
    treatment.  Extensive data have been reviewed by the FAO/WHO Joint
    Meeting on Pesticide Residues.  The resulting exposure of the general
    population is expected to be very low, but data from total-diet
    studies are lacking.

    2.2  Environmental Exposure and Fate

    When deltamethrin-[1R, cis; alpha S] (labelled with 14C in the
    acid, alcohol, or cyano groups) was exposed to sunlight as a thin film
    for 4-8 h, 70% was transformed by cis/trans isomerization  to  the
    [1R, trans; alpha S] and [1S, trans; alpha S] isomers.  Ester-
    cleavage products, including dibromovinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid
    (Br2CA) and  alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol, were also formed.

    Under glasshouse conditions, deltamethrin was degraded in cotton
    plants and had an initial half-life of 1.1 weeks. The time needed for
    90% loss was 4.6 weeks.  The major metabolites were free and
    conjugated Br2CA,  trans-hydroxy-methyl-Br2CA, and
    3-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)benzoic acid, which are formed by ester cleavage,
    oxidation, and conjugation.

    Under laboratory conditions, deltamethrin was incubated in sand and
    organic soil at 28 C.  Approximately 52% and 74%, respectively, of
    the applied deltamethrin remained 8 weeks after treatment.

    Deltamethrin is not mobile in the environment because of its strong
    adsorption to particles, its lack of solubility in water, and the very
    low application rates used.

    No data are available on the exact levels of deltamethrin in the
    environment.  With the current pattern of use, and when used as
    recommended, environmental exposure is expected to be very low. 
    Degradation to less toxic products is rapid.

    2.3  Uptake, Metabolism, and Excretion

    Deltamethrin is readily absorbed by the oral route but less readily
    through the skin.  The rate of absorption depends mostly on the
    carrier or solvent.  Absorbed deltamethrin is readily metabolized and

    When rats were orally fed deltamethrin (0.64-1.60 mg/kg), labelled
    with 14C in the acid, alcohol, or cyano groups, the radiocarbon from
    the acid and alcohol moiety was almost completely eliminated within
    2-4 days. Tissue residue levels were generally very low except in fat,
    where slightly higher residues occurred.  The cyano portion, however,
    was excreted more slowly, the total recovery in 8 days being 79%.  The
    major metabolic reactions were oxidation (at the  trans-methyl
    position of the cyclopropane ring and at the 2, 4, and 5 positions of
    the alcohol moiety), ester cleavage, and conversion of the cyano
    portion to thiocyanate.  The resultant carboxylic acids and phenols
    were conjugated with sulfuric acid, glycine, and glucuronic acid.

    Mice excrete deltamethrin rapidly.  When mice were fed deltamethrin
    (1.7-4.4 mg/kg), labelled with 14C in the acid, alcohol, or cyano
    groups, the excretion of radiocarbon was rapid except when it was the
    cyano portion that was labelled.  The major metabolic reactions in
    mice are generally similar to those in rats.

    The degradation pathways in cows and poultry are very similar to those
    in rodents.

    2.4  Effects on Organisms in the Environment

    Deltamethrin is highly toxic for fish and aquatic invertebrates.  The
    96-h LC50 for fish ranges between 0.4 and 2.0 g/litre, while the
    48-h LC50 for Daphnia is 5g/litre.  However, field use and
    extensive field studies in experimental ponds have shown that this
    high potential toxicity is not realized.  Some kills of aquatic
    invertebrates occur in the field, but usually there is rapid

    Deltamethrin has very low toxicity to birds.  The LD50 values
    (single oral dosing) are >1000 mg/kg.  Under laboratory conditions,
    deltamethrin is highly toxic for honey bees, but in practice the
    hazard to bees is low.  Although the contact LD50 is 0.051 g/bee,
    in field trials and practical use, bees tend to avoid deltamethrin.

    2.5  Effects on Experimental Animals and  In Vitro Test Systems

    In a non-aqueous solvent, deltamethrin has a high to moderate acute
    oral toxicity.  The LD50 values (non-aqueous solvents) are
    19-34 mg/kg in mice and 31-139 mg/kg in rats, but deltamethrin is far
    less toxic when suspended in water (LD50 values >5000 mg/kg in
    rats).  Deltamethrin is a type II pyrethroid.  Clinical signs include
    tremor, salivation, and convulsions.  The onset of poisoning is rapid
    but in survivors the signs disappear within a few days.  The
    electroencephalogram shows generalized spike and wave discharges
    before the occurrence of choreo-athetosis.

    Single applications of technical deltamethrin in rabbits do not
    irritate intact or abraded skin, but have a transient irritating
    effect on their eyes whether or not the eyes are rinsed. Deltamethrin
    is not a skin sensitizer in guinea-pigs.

    When rats were dosed by gavage with deltamethrin (up to 10 mg/kg body
    weight per day for 13 weeks), hyperexcitability occurred in males
    after 6 weeks at the highest dose.  In males fed 2.5 or 10 mg/kg, body
    weight gain was reduced.

    When Beagle dogs were dosed orally with deltamethrin (up to 10 mg/kg
    body weight per day for 13 weeks), there were various compound-related
    symptoms, such as vomiting, tremor, salivation, and depressed gag,
    patellar, and flexor reflexes.  In a 2-year feeding study in dogs, the
    no-observed-effect level was 1 mg/kg body weight per day (the highest
    level tested).

    When mice were fed deltamethrin at dose levels up to 100 mg/kg diet
    for 24 months, tumour incidence was not affected. The
    no-observed-effect level for systemic toxicity was 100 mg/kg diet.

    When rats were fed deltamethrin at dose levels of up to 50 mg/kg diet
    for 2 years, no compound-related tumours were observed.  The
    no-observed-effect level for systemic toxicity was 50 mg/kg diet.

    Deltamethrin is not mutagenic in a variety of  in vivo and  in vitro
    test systems that include: DNA repair, gene mutation, chromosomal
    aberration, sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus formation, and
    dominant lethal tests.

    Teratology studies have been conducted on pregnant rats and mice in
    which deltamethrin was administered orally at dose levels up to
    10 mg/kg per day during the period of major organogenesis. There were
    no teratogenic or reproductive effects in either rats or mice except
    for a dose-related decrease in mean fetal weight in the mouse study
    and slightly delayed ossification in the rat study.

    When rabbits were given deltamethrin at dose levels of up to 16 mg/kg
    per day between days 6 and 19 of pregnancy, a decreased average fetal
    weight was noted, but only at the highest dose.  No teratogenic
    effects were observed.

    Rats were fed deltamethrin at dose levels up to 50 mg/kg diet in a
    three-generation, two-litter reproduction study. No effects on
    reproduction were observed.

    There are indications that potentiation of toxicity may occur when
    deltamethrin is combined with certain organophosphorus compounds.

    2.6  Effects on Human Beings

    Deltamethrin can induce skin sensations in exposed workers.  There
    have been several non-fatal cases of poisoning following occupational
    exposure when safety precautions were not followed. Vertigo and
    numbness, itching, tingling, and burning of the skin have been
    frequently reported.  Occasionally, a transient papular or blotchy
    erythema has been described.  Most of these symptoms were transient
    and disappeared within 5 to 7 days.  No long-term adverse effects have
    been reported.  Three non-fatal cases of deltamethrin poisoning after
    the ingestion of several grams of the product have been described.


    3.1  Conclusions

    (a)  General population: The exposure of the general population to
    deltamethrin is expected to be very low.  Deltamethrin is not likely
    to present a hazard when used as recommended.

    (b)  Occupational exposure: When proper work practices, hygiene
    measures, and safety precautions are followed, it is unlikely that
    deltamethrin will be an occupational hazard.

    (c)  Environment: It is unlikely that deltamethrin or its degradation
    products will reach levels of adverse environmental significance when
    the recommended application rates are used.  Under laboratory
    conditions, deltamethrin is highly toxic for fish, aquatic arthropods,
    and honey bees.  However, under field conditions, long-lasting adverse
    effects are not likely to occur when deltamethrin is used as

    3.2  Recommendations

    Since there have been several cases of non-fatal poisoning and
    transient effects resulting from occupational exposure to
    deltamethrin, observations of human exposure should continue.


    4.1  Human Health Hazards, Prevention and Protection, First Aid

    Deltamethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide with a high to
    moderate acute oral toxicity.  The LD50 values in mice range from
    19-34 mg/kg.  In rats, the LD50 values range from 31-139 mg/kg in
    non-aqueous vehicle, but it is much less toxic in suspension in water,
    having LD50 values of >5000 mg/kg.

    Deltamethrin is a moderate acute hazard.  There have been several
    non-fatal cases of poisoning during occupational exposure when safety
    precautions were not followed.  Severe headaches, dizziness, fatigue,
    nausea, and anorexia, together with transient changes in the EEG, have
    been reported.  In a severe case, there were tremors and convulsions. 
    There was complete recovery in all cases.

    The human health hazards associated with certain types of exposure to
    deltamethrin, together with preventive and protective measures and
    first aid recommendations, are listed in the International Chemical
    Safety Card (section 6).

    4.1.1  Advice to physicians

    There is no specific antidote.  Chemical pneumonitis resulting from
    aspiration of the solvent into the lungs is a hazard that occurs when
    liquid formulations are used.  Therefore, do not induce vomiting. 
    Empty the stomach only on the advice of a physician and only with
    equipment that will not cause aspiration into the lungs.  Treat
    symptomatically.  If convulsions occur, diazepam (10 or 20 mg for an
    adult) should be administered slowly, intravenously or rectally, and
    repeated if necessary.

    4.1.2  Health surveillance advice

    Regularly exposed workers should undergo a pre-employment and annual
    general medical examination. The occurrence of "facial skin
    sensations" is an indication of an exposure that should be corrected.

    4.2  Explosion and Fire Hazards

    Some solvents in pyrethroid formulations are highly flammable.  DO NOT
    USE WATER to extinguish fires.  Use dry powder, carbon dioxide, or
    alcohol-resistant foam, sand, or earth.  Cool nearby drums with water

    Whenever pyrethroid products are involved in a major fire, advise the
    fire service to wear protective clothing and breathing apparatus. 
    Inform the fire service and other relevant authorities that
    pyrethroids are highly toxic for fish, and that water should be used
    only to cool the unaffected stock.  In this way, the accumulation of
    polluted run-off from the site is prevented.

    4.3  Storage

    Store technical material and formulations away from heat in a locked
    area, designated for pesticide storage only.  Keep out of reach of
    children, unauthorized personnel, and animals, and away from food and
    animal feed.  Prevent spills from leaking into watercourses.

    4.4  Transport

    For transport purposes, pyrethroids are classified as "harmful" or as
    "low hazard". Formulations based on flammable solvents are subject to
    international and local transport controls.  Before transport, ensure
    that the containers are intact and that labels are securely fixed and
    not damaged.  Comply with local transport regulations.

    Do not transport in the same compartments as food and feed.

    4.5  Spillage and Disposal

    4.5.1  Spillage

    Keep spectators away from leaking or spilled product. Prohibit smoking
    and the use of naked flames in the immediate vicinity.  Transfer any
    product remaining in damaged or leaking containers into a clean, empty
    drum, and label the drum.

    Absorb spillage and cover contaminated areas with lime, damp sawdust,
    sand, earth, or other absorbent material and place in a secure
    container for safe disposal (see below).  Contain a large spillage by
    a barrier of earth or sandbags.  Prevent liquid from spreading to
    other cargo, vegetation, or waterways.

    Decontaminate empty, damaged, or leaking containers with a 10% sodium
    carbonate solution added at the rate of at least 1 litre per 20-litre
    drum.  Puncture containers to prevent reuse.

    4.5.2  Disposal

    Waste that contains deltamethrin should be burnt in an appropriate
    high-temperature incinerator with effluent scrubbing.  Where no
    incinerator is available, contaminated absorbents or surplus products
    should be decomposed by hydrolysis at pH 12 or above.  Contact with a
    suitable hydrolysing agent is required to ensure degradation of the 
    active ingredient to a safe level.

    For emulsifiable material, use 5% sodium hydroxide (caustic soda)
    solution or saturated (7-10%) sodium carbonate (washing soda)

    For non-emulsifiable material, use a 1:1 mixture (by volume) of
    caustic soda or washing soda (as above) and a water/oil soluble
    solvent such as denatured alcohol, monoethylene glycol, hexylene
    glycol, or isopropanol.

    Cover the material with a hydrolysing agent and let it stand for 7
    days.  Before disposal, the waste must be analysed to ensure that the
    active ingredient has been degraded to a safe level.

    Never pour untreated waste or surplus products into public sewers or
    where there is any danger of run-off or seepage to streams,
    watercourses, open waterways, ditches, fields with drainage systems,
    or to the catchment areas of boreholes, wells, springs, or ponds.


    Deltamethrin is very toxic for fish, aquatic invertebrates, and honey
    bees, but due to the very low exposure levels that usually occur, it
    will only cause a problem if spilled.  Deltamethrin has a low toxicity
    to birds. 

    When used as recommended, it is unlikely that deltamethrin or its
    degradation products will reach levels of adverse environmental

    Do not spray deltamethrin over bodies of water.  Do not contaminate
    ponds, waterways, or ditches with deltamethrin or its containers.


     This card should be easily available to all health workers concerned
     with, and users of, deltamethrin.  It should be displayed at, or
     near, entrances to areas where there is potential exposure to
     deltamethrin, and on processing equipment and containers.  The card
     should be translated into the appropriate language(s).  All persons
     potentially exposed to the chemical should also have the instructions
     on the chemical safety card clearly explained.

     Space is available on the card for insertion of the National
     Occupational Exposure Limit, the address and telephone number of the
     National Poison Control Centre, and for local trade names.


    CAS index name: (9CI): cyclopropane carboxylic acid, 3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-,
    alpha-cyano(3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl ester, [1R-[1 alpha (S*),3 alpha]]-,

    Cas registry no. 52918-63-5
    Molecular formula: C22H19Br2NO3


    PHYSICAL PROPERTIES                                                   OTHER CHARACTERISTICS

    Physical state                     crystalline powder                 Deltamethrin is a dibromo-pyrethroid with a
    Colour                             colourless                         (1R)-cis geometry.
    Odour                              odourless
    Relative density                   0.5
    Relative molecular mass            505.24                             It is stable to light, heat, and air, but unstable
    Melting point ( C)                98-101 C                          in alkaline media.
    Boiling point ( C)                decomposes >300 C
    Water solubility (20 C)           <0.002 mg/litre
    Solubility in organic solvents     solublea                           It is used as an insecticide on cotton and other
    Vapour pressure (25 C)            1.5 x 10-8 mmHg                    crops, and in public health and animal health.
     n-Octanol-water partition          5.43
      coefficient (log Pow)


    a    Acetone (500 g/litre); ethanol (15 g/litre); cyclohexanone (750 g/litre);
         dioxane (900 g/litre); xylene (250 g/litre); ethylacetate.


    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID

    SKIN: Irritation; facial                Use proper application techniques            Remove contaminated clothing;
    skin sensations                         and proper skin protection; clean            wash skin with soap and water
                                            protective equipment before re-use

    EYES: Irritation                        Wear face shield or goggles                  Flush immediately with clean water
                                                                                         for at least 15 min

    INHALATION: Irritant to                 Avoid inhalation of fine dust and            Fresh air
    respiratory system                      mist

    INGESTION: Unlikely to be a             Do not eat, drink, or smoke during
    significant occupational hazard         work; wash hands before eating,
                                            drinking, or smoking

    Accidental or deliberate                                                             Obtain medical attention 
    ingestion could cause neurological                                                   immediately; if breathing has stopped,
    signs and symptons such as                                                           apply artificial respiration.
    ataxia and convulsions.


    HAZARDS/SYMPTOMS                        PREVENTION AND PROTECTION                    FIRST AID

    A hazard of ingested liquid                                                          Do not induce vomiting. Give 
    formulations is aspiration                                                           activated charcoal
    into lungs

    ENVIRONMENT: Very toxic for             Do not contaminate ponds,                    Effect on ponds can be minimized by
    fish and honey bees                     waterways, or ditches with product           adding soil
                                            or used containers


    SPILLAGE                                STORAGE                                      FIRE AND EXPLOSION

    Absorb spillage with lime, damp         Store in locked, well-ventilated             DO NOT USE WATER: some liquid
    sawdust, sand, or earth; sweep          storeroom, away from children                formulations may be highly
    up, place in closed container,          and unauthorized personnel, and              flammable; use dry powder, carbon
    and dispose of safely; do not           food and animal feed                         dioxide, or alcohol-resistant
    contaminate personnel, ponds,                                                        foam; cool nearby drums with
    or waterways                                                                         water spray


    WASTE DISPOSAL                          NATIONAL INFORMATION

    Burn in high-temperature                National Occupational Exposure Limit:
    incinerator with effluent scrubbing;
    or, treat with 5% caustic soda          National Poison Control Centre:
    as a hydrolysing agent for 7
    days; comply with local                 Local trade names:

    FIGURE 1


    The information in this section has been extracted from the
    International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals (IRPTC) legal
    file and other UN sources.  It is a representative but non-exhaustive
    overview of current regulations, guidelines, and standards.

    Regulations and guidelines about chemicals can be fully understood
    only within the framework of a country's legislation, and are always
    subject to change.  Therefore, they should always be verified with the
    appropriate authorities.

    7.1  Previous Evaluations by International Bodies

    The FAO/WHO Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) evaluated
    deltamethrin at its meetings in 1980, 1981, 1982, 1984, 1985, 1986,
    1987, and 1988. In 1982, an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of
    0-0.01 mg/kg body weight was established.

    The Division of Vector Biology and Control, World Health Organization,
    has classified deltamethrin as a moderately hazardous technical
    product when used as recommended (WHO 1988), and has issued a Data
    Sheet on deltamethrin (No. 50) (WHO/FAO 1984).

    7.2  Exposure Limit Values

    Some exposure limit values are given in the table on pages 26-27.

    When no effective date appears in the IRPTC legal file, the year of
    the reference from which the data are taken is indicated by (r).

    7.3  Specific Restrictions

    There are restrictions, limitations, and safety precautions in some of
    the countries where deltamethrin has been registered. They should
    always be consulted before deltamethrin is used.

    7.4 Labelling, Packaging, and Transport

    The United Nations Committee of Experts on the Transportation of
    Dangerous Goods classifies pyrethroids in:

    -    Hazard Class 6.1: poisonous substances
    -    Packing Group III: substance that has a relatively low risk of
         poisoning during transport.



    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date

    FOOD        Intake from         FAO/WHO             Acceptable daily intake (ADI)                0-0.01 mg/kg         1982
                                                                                                     body weight

    FOOD        Residues            FAO/WHO             Maximum residue limit (MRL)
                                                        - tea                                        10 mg/kg             1987, 1988

                                                        - hops (dry), wheat bran (unprocessed)a      5 mg/kg

                                                        - coffee beansb                              2 mg/kg

                                                        - wheat wholemeala, cereal grainsa,
                                                          lentils (dry)a, beans (dry)a,              1 mg/kg
                                                          field peas (dry)a

                                                        - straw and fodder (dry) of cereal
                                                          grains, legume animal feeds (dry
                                                          weight), leafy vegetables                  0.5 mg/kg

                                                        - brassica leafy vegetablesa, edible
                                                          peel of fruiting vegetablesa               0.2 mg/kg

                                                        - bulb vegetables, edible peel of assorted
                                                          fruits, legume vegetables, oilseeds,
                                                          pome fruits, wheat floura                  0.1 mg/kg

                                                        - artichokes, bananas, clementines, coco
                                                          beans, grapes, kiwi fruit, oranges
                                                          (sweet, sour), stone fruits,               0.05 mg/kg


    Medium      Specification       Country/            Exposure limit description                   Value                Effective
                                    organization                                                                          date

                                                        - legume oilseeds, melons, mushrooms,
                                                          pineapples, root and tuber                 0.01 mg/kg
                                                          vegetables, milk


    a  not yet confirmed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission.
    b  p.h. = post harvest use.
        The label should appear as follows:

    FIGURE 2

    According to the WHO specification for technical deltamethrin, the
    material shall consist of deltamethrin together with related
    manufacturing compounds and shall be in the form of a
    white-to-cream-coloured crystalline powder, free from extraneous
    impurities or added modifying agents.  Its deltamethrin content shall
    be at least 98%, and maximum levels are given for impurities. 
    Analytical methods are given.

    Technical deltamethrin should be packed in suitable clean containers.
    All containers shall bear the following information, durably and
    legibly marked:

    -    Manufacturer's name
    -    Technical deltamethrin to specification WHO/SIT/24
    -    Batch or reference number, and date of test
    -    Net weight of contents
    -    Date of manufacture

    and the following minimum cautionary notice:

     Deltamethrin is a pyrethroid that acts predominantly on the central
     nervous system; high dosages have been found to cause tonic seizures
     in experimental animals.  A high concentration in the air may be an
     irritant, and contact with the concentrated product may induce a
     temporary tingling sensation, particularly on the face.  It may be
     hazardous if swallowed.  Do not inhale spray mist.  Avoid contact
     with skin; wear protective gloves, clean protective clothing, and a
     face mask (surgical type) when handling the material.  Wash hands and
     exposed skin thoroughly after using.  Keep containers out of the
     reach of children and well away from foodstuffs and animal feed and
     their containers. Deltamethrin is toxic to aquatic wildlife.  Avoid
     accidental contamination of water. If poisoning occurs, call a
     physician.  Treatment is symptomatic.

    Similar specifications are given for deltamethrin formulations.

    The European Community legislation requires labelling as a dangerous
    substance using the symbol:

    FIGURE 3

    The label must read:

          Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin, and if swallowed;
          keep out of reach of children; keep away from food, drink, and
          animal feed.

    7.5  Waste Disposal

    In some countries, permits are required to empty pyrethroids into


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    FAO  (1985c)  Guidelines on good labelling practice for pesticides.
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    IRPTC  (1985)  IRPTC file on treatment and disposal methods for waste
     chemicals. Geneva, International Register for Potentially Toxic
    Chemicals, United Nations Environment Programme.

    PLESTINA, R.  (1984)  Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of
     insecticide poisoning. Geneva, World Health Organization
    (unpublished document WHO/VBC/84.889).

    SAX, N.I.  (1984)  Dangerous properties of industrial materials.  New
    York, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc.

    UNITED NATIONS  (1986)  Recommendations on the transport of dangerous
     goods. 4th ed., New York, United Nations.

    US NIOSH/OSHA  (1981)  Occupational health guidelines for chemical
     hazards. 3 Vol., Washington DC, US Department of Health and Human
    Services, US Department of Labor (Publication No.  DHSS(NIOSH)

    WHO  (1988)  The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by
     hazard and guidelines to classification 1988/89. Geneva, World
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    WHO  (In press)  EHC No. 97: Deltamethrin. Geneva, World Health

    WHO/FAO  (1984)  Data sheets on pesticides, No. 50. Deltamethrin.
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    WORTHING, C.R. & WALKER, S.B.  (1983)  The pesticide manual. 
    7th ed., Lavenham, Lavenham Press Limited, British Crop Protection


    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Deltamethrin (EHC 97, 1990)
       Deltamethrin (ICSC)
       DELTAMETHRIN (JECFA Evaluation)
       Deltamethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1980 evaluations)
       Deltamethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1981 evaluations)
       Deltamethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1982 evaluations)
       Deltamethrin (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Deltamethrin (JMPR Evaluations 2000 Part II Toxicological)
       Deltamethrin (UKPID)
       Deltamethrin (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 53, 1991)