WHO/FOOD ADD./69.35



    Issued jointly by FAO and WHO

    The content of this document is the result of the deliberations of the
    Joint Meeting of the FAO Working Party of Experts and the WHO Expert
    Committee on Pesticide Residues, which met in Geneva, 9-16 December,



    Geneva, 1969


    Since the previous evaluation (FAO/WHO, 1967), additional data have
    become available and are summarized and discussed in the following
    monograph addendum.



    At the Third Session of the Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues, the
    delegation of Australia requested the Joint Meeting to consider the
    advisability of recommending tolerances in meat, milk products and raw
    cereals, and subsequently furnished supporting data. Additionally, the
    Codex Committee on Cocoa Products and Chocolate requested the Joint
    Meeting to consider the advisability of recommending tolerances in
    cocoa beans and derived products, and provided some background

    Use pattern

    Carbaryl is used on cattle especially for the control of flies,
    sand-flies, mosquitos, ticks and lice, some of which are vectors of
    disease. It is used as an 0.5 per cent spray to control insects
    attacking small grain crops.

    Residues resulting from supervised trials

    Claborn et al. (1963) ran experiments in which cattle, sheep, goats
    and hogs were sprayed four times in two weeks with a 1.0 per cent
    suspension of carbaryl, and Hereford steers were fed 50 and 200 ppm of
    carbaryl in the diet for a period of 27 days. No residues were
    detected in tissues of cattle fed carbaryl; however, some residues
    were found in sprayed animals. Cattle fat had residues up to 0.57 ppm
    one day after a spray application of 1.0 per cent carbaryl. Cattle
    muscle tissue contained up to 0.13 ppm at one day and none at seven
    days following the spray application. Sprayed sheep and goats
    contained up to 0.38 in fat and 0.18 in muscle at one day. Goat brain
    contained 23.0 ppm, whereas brain of cattle and sheep had 0.1 and 0.15
    ppm respectively. No residue was found in hogs from the spray
    application. Gyrisco et al. (1960) fed up to 450 ppm for two weeks and
    found no residue in milk by a colorimetric method.

    Dorough (1967) and Baron et al. (1968) fed radio-labelled carbaryl to
    lactating cows and found very small amounts of radioactivity in milk
    which was proved to be not from carbaryl. Baron et al. (1968) found
    that the radioactivity was incorporated into the lactose of milk

    Hurwood (1967) sprayed cattle with carbaryl and samples of fat,
    muscle, liver and kidney were taken from animals slaughtered one,
    three or seven days after single or multiple treatments. Up to 0.17
    ppm was found at one day and none at seven days from the single
    application, but up to 0.92 was found from three applications applied
    at two-day intervals and then allowing one day before slaughter. None
    was found at seven days. In the pre-slaughter period this same study
    showed about 0.5-1 ppm in butterfat and none in the aqueous phase.
    However, full details of the separation of the butterfat from whole
    milk were not available to the meeting. Further information on the
    residue content of whole milk is required.

    Limited residue studies from the application of 1.26 to 2.52 kg/ha on
    oats, wheat and rye showed residues of 1 ppm on grain at 0 days and
    13-49 ppm on straw at 0 days. These residues diminished to 0.3 at 28
    days (one analysis) on grain, and 0.6 on straw (one analysis) at 28
    days. The recommended usage prohibits application after the boot stage
    (when the head begins to form, but before the spike emerges), which is
    35 to 50 days before harvest. It is concluded that no residue
    detectable by the available method of analysis would be present under
    such conditions. No other data on cereals were available on different
    rates of application, harvest period and the resultant residues at
    various time intervals.

    No data were available on residues in cocoa and cocoa products.

    National tolerances

    Country                  Crop                 Tolerance (ppm)

    United States            meat                     5
    of America               poultry (fat basis)      5
                             cereals                  0



    There is no conclusive proof that any residue of carbaryl or
    1-naphthol appears in meat when cattle are fed levels up to 200 ppm in
    the diet. In cattle fed up to 450 ppm for two weeks no residues were
    found in milk using a colorimetric method. The data available from use
    of radioactive carbaryl indicate small amounts of "carbaryl
    equivalents" but these do not respond to the colorimetric method.
    However, there were residues up to 0.57 ppm one day after a spray
    application of 1.0 per cent carbaryl.

    Since the solubility of carbaryl is such that residues are likely to
    be distributed between fat and the aqueous phases, it is proposed that
    any residues in animal products be expressed on the whole product
    rather than on a fat basis.


    In addition to the previously recommended temporary tolerances to be
    in effect until 1970:

         Tree fruit including citrus fruit, 
         small fruit and berries, leafy 
         vegetables, brassica, olives, 
         shelled nuts, cucurbits, melons        10 ppm

         Other vegetables, poultry,
         cotton seed                             5 ppm

         Rice                                    2.5 ppm

    The meeting also recommends the following temporary tolerances to be
    in effect until 1970:

         Meat of cattle, goat and sheep          1.0 ppm
         Whole milk                              0.02  ppm

    The above temporary tolerances are to apply to raw agricultural
    products moving in commerce unless otherwise indicated. In the case of
    fruit and vegetables, the tolerances should be applied as soon as
    practicable after harvest and in any event prior to actual retail to
    the public. In the case of commodities entering international trade,
    the tolerances should be applied by the importing country at the point
    of entry or as soon as practicable thereafter.

    Further work or information

    Required before 30 June 1970

    1. Further data on residue levels in whole milk.

    2. Data on the required rates and frequencies of application,
       pre-harvest or withholding intervals, and the resultant residues 
       under Australian conditions and conditions in other countries.

    3. Data on the disappearance of residues during storage and processing
       of cocoa beans and derived products.

    4. Data on the disappearance of residues during storage and processing
       of cereals into cereal products.


    Baron, R. L. et al. (1968) Confirmatory isolation and identification
    of a metabolite of carbaryl in urine and milk (In press)

    Claborn, H. V., Roberts, R. H., Mann, H. D., Bowman, H. C., Ivey, M.
    C., Weidenbach, C. P. and Radeleff, R. D. (1963) Residues in body
    tissues of livestock sprayed with Sevin or Sevin in the diet. J. Agr.
    Food Chem., 11: 74-76

    Dorough, H. W. (1967) Carbaryl-C14 metabolism in a lactating cow. 
    J. Agr. Food Chem., 15: 261-266

    Gyrisco, G. C., Lisk  D. J., Fertig, S. N., Huddleston, E. W., Fox, F.
    H., Holland, R. F., Trimberger, G. W. (1960) The effects of feeding
    high levels of Sevin on residue, flavour and odour of the milk of
    dairy cattle. J. Agr. Food Chem., 8: 409-410

    Hurwood, I. S. (1967) Studies on pesticide residues. 2. Carbaryl
    residues in the body tissues and milk of cattle following dermal
    application. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences,
    24: 69-74

    See Also:
       Toxicological Abbreviations
       Carbaryl (EHC 153, 1994)
       Carbaryl (HSG 78, 1993)
       Carbaryl (ICSC)
       Carbaryl (PIM 147)
       Carbaryl (FAO Meeting Report PL/1965/10/1)
       Carbaryl (FAO/PL:CP/15)
       Carbaryl (FAO/PL:1967/M/11/1)
       Carbaryl (FAO/PL:1969/M/17/1)
       Carbaryl (AGP:1970/M/12/1)
       Carbaryl (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 3)
       Carbaryl (WHO Pesticide Residues Series 5)
       Carbaryl (Pesticide residues in food: 1976 evaluations)
       Carbaryl (Pesticide residues in food: 1977 evaluations)
       Carbaryl (Pesticide residues in food: 1979 evaluations)
       Carbaryl (Pesticide residues in food: 1984 evaluations)
       Carbaryl (Pesticide residues in food: 1996 evaluations Part II Toxicological)
       Carbaryl (JMPR Evaluations 2001 Part II Toxicological)
       Carbaryl (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 12, 1976)