PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN FOOD - 1984
Sponsored jointly by FAO and WHO
Data and recommendations of the joint meeting
of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues
in Food and the Environment and the
WHO Expert Group on Pesticide Residues
Rome, 24 September - 3 October 1984
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Carbaryl was first evaluated in 1965. It was re-evaluated in
1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1973, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1979.1/ The
15th Session of the CCPR (October 1983) requested that residue data
from the use of carbaryl on bananas be submitted to the JMPR. This
Session also requested that carbaryl residue data and current use
patterns on poultry be provided to the JMPR. This information has been
received by FAO and is reported in the following monograph addendum.
RESIDUES IN FOOD AND THEIR EVALUATION
Carbaryl is extensively used for the control of a variety of
insect pests of bananas in many countries, especially Central and
South America. The usual practice is to apply carbaryl wettable powder
or suspension concentrate at the rate of 1.1 kg a.i./ha (1 lb
a.i./acre) by aircraft (helicopter or fixed wing) in about 23 1 of
water/ha. Smaller producers use mist blowers for banana insect
control. Because bananas crop continuously and the mature (but unripe)
bunches are harvested over a long period, it is not feasible to have
an enforceable interval between application and harvest. The fruit is
frequently washed using a solution of sodium bisulphite after harvest
(Union Carbide, 1984).
Following the request of the CCPR, information concerning the use
of carbaryl on or near poultry was received by FAO from several
Carbaryl is the major pesticide used in Canada for direct
application to poultry for control of mites. It is also approved for
direct application to poultry against lice and as a supplement to
premise treatment for chicken mites, fleas and fowl ticks. Carbaryl
spray and dust is applied directly to poultry at the rate of
22.5 g/100 birds. Carbaryl dust (5 percent) is applied to poultry
dusting boxes at the rate of 120 g a.i./100 birds. The treatment is
not to be made within seven days of slaughter (Canada, 1984).
1/ See Annex 2 for FAO and WHO documentation
Carbaryl is approved for the treatment of pens, sheds and other
structures for the control of chicken mites, lice, mealworms and
fleas. A suspension containing 5 g/l is used at the rate of
11/35 sq. m. Carbaryl dust was authorized for direct application to
poultry but was withdrawn in 1980 because of unpredictable residues in
meat and eggs (Netherlands, 1984).
Carbaryl is not used to control pests of poultry in Poland
In Portugal, carbaryl is approved for direct application to
poultry as a 5 percent dust, with or without pyrethrum. An interval of
two weeks between treatments is recommended, with an interval of seven
days between the last application and slaughter (Portugal, 1984).
Carbaryl is used in the United Kingdom as a dusting powder for
poultry (United Kingdom, 1984).
In the United States, carbaryl suspension concentrates, wettable
powders and dusts may be applied directly to poultry for the control
of Northern fowl mite, chicken mite, lice and fleas. The dust is
applied at the rate of 500g/100 birds and 0.5 percent sprays at the
rate of 4 1/100 birds. Carbaryl dust (5 percent) is used in dust baths
at the rate of 1 kg per box for each 50 birds. There is a seven day
interval between the last application and day of slaughter. The
relative proportion of dust and spray is not known (United States,
RESIDUES RESULTING FROM SUPERVISED TRIALS
During 1959 and 1960, the manufacturers of carbaryl (Union
Carbide Agricultural Products Company) conducted an extensive residue
sampling programme involving carbaryl insecticide on bananas. In 1959
alone, a total of 105 banana samples from six locations in Central and
South America were analysed. Additional residue studies were conducted
the following year, in which application rates, spray volumes, number
of sprays and post-harvest procedures were varied. A summary of the
data collected from these studies is given in Table 1 (Union Carbide,
The effect of multiple applications, higher rates and fruit
rinsing (a common post-harvest procedure utilizing a sodium bisulfite
wash) on the level of residues was investigated. In 1960, a single
study reported residues higher than 10 mg/kg. However, this was
detected in banana peels only (using almost twice the recommended use
rates and application numbers). Significantly, when residues were
analysed in pulp and whole (peel + pulp) banana samples, residues in
both were below 10 mg/kg.
TABLE 1. Carbaryl Residues on Bananas from Supervised Trials
Location/year Formulation No. of Plant Wash1 Avg. Residues (mg/kg) after last
(kg a.i./ha or 1/ha) Sprays Part application (days)
0 1 3 7 14
Panama/59 SEVIN 50W 1.1 3.8 1 Peel Yes 6.45 4.45 2.85 1.40 -
Panama/59 SEVIN 50W 1.1 3.8 1 Pulp Yes 5.05 4.15 2.50 1.10 -
Guatemala/59 SEVIN 50W 1.1 3.8 1 Peel Yes 1.22 1.00 0.60 0.18 -
Guatemala/59 SEVIN 50W 1.1 3.8 1 Peel No 1.33 1.10 0.71 0.29 -
Guatemala/59 SEVIN 50W 1.1 3.8 1 Pulp Yes 1.24 1.10 0.65 0.23 -
Guatemala/59 SEVIN 50W 1.1 3.8 1 Pulp No 1.34 1.11 0.69 0.17 -
Honduras/59 SEVIN 50W 1.1 - 1 Pulp - 1.78 - 0.79 - -
Honduras/59 SEVIN 50W 1.1 - 1 Pulp - 3.55 - - 0.76 0.36
Honduras/59 SEVIN 50W 2.2 - 1 Pulp - 4.23 - - 0.66 0.39
Costa Rica/59 SEVIN 85S 1.1 - 1 Peel - 3.69 - - 0.74 -
Costa Rica/59 SEVIN 85S 1.1 - 1 Pulp - 3.45 - - 0.63 -
Ecuador SEVIN 85S 1.1 - 1 Peel - 3.30 - - 1.35 -
Ecuador SEVIN 85S 1.1 - 1 Pulp - 3.00 - - 1.17 -
Honduras/60 SEVIN 85S 2.0 80 1 Peel No 4.80 5.40 - 3.70 -
Honduras/60 SEVIN 85S 2.0 80 1 Pulp No 1.90 1.10 - 3.40 -
Honduras/60 SEVIN 85S 2.0 80 1 Whole2 No 3.40 3.30 - 3.60 -
Honduras/60 SEVIN 85S 2.0 80 2 Peel No 9.9 9.1 - 10.9 -
Honduras/60 SEVIN 85S 2.0 80 2 Pulp No 3.3 3.6 - 3.3 -
Honduras/60 SEVIN 85S 2.0 80 2 Whole No 6.6 6.4 - 7.1 -
Honduras/60 SEVIN 85S 2.0 80 2 Whole Yes 1.51 1.40 - - -
Panama/60 SEVIN 85S 4.4 276 1 Whole No 1.51 1.59 - - -
Panama/60 SEVIN 85S 3.7 50 2 Whole No 4.70 - - - -
1 Fruit mixed with sodium bisulfite wash after harvest.
2 Whole = Peel + Pulp
The residue in the pulp of bananas was only slightly less than in
the peel. The residue in the whole fruit (peel + pulp) is therefore of
the same order of that reported in the pulp. The same MRL would be
appropriate for both bananas (whole) and banana (pulp).
The residue data clearly show that the residue in commercial
bananas will generally be substantially less than the MRL as the bulk
of the crop will be harvested some time after the carbaryl spray is
applied to the whole plantation. The residue level seven days after
treatment was about one-quarter that found on the day of treatment.
The following summary of results from three residue trials on
laying hens and poultry poults indicates the level and distribution of
carbaryl residues in poultry tissues (Union Carbide, 1984b).
In Test 1, laying hens were dusted with 4 g of 5 percent dust per
bird (recommended rate) three times at four day intervals (once in 28
days is recommended) and slaughtered at one and seven days after last
treatment. Samples of skin, breast muscle, leg muscle, liver and
gizzard were taken from each of six hens and separately analysed
following each slaughter. The colorimetric method of Johnson et
al. (1963) was used to determine carbaryl and 1-naphthol separately
at a method sensitivity of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/kg. 1-naphthol residues were
less than 10 percent of carbaryl residues in every case. Results below
are averages of duplicate analyses on each bird.
1-day residues (mg/kg) 7-day residues (mg/kg)
Tissue max. avg. max. avg.
skin 35.0 19.3 3.1 2.2
breast muscle 1.1 0.4 0.1 nil
leg muscle 2.0 0.9 0.1 0.1
liver 0.2 nil nil nil
gizzard nil nil nil nil
In Test 2, turkey poults two weeks old were dusted with 5 percent
carbaryl three times at 14-day intervals, using a squeeze bottle
applying 1, 2 and 3 gms/bird, successively. Sprays of 0.5 percent were
applied at the same times using 1, 1.5 ml/bird. Sampling and analyses
were done as in Test 1.
Average residues (mg/kg)
Tissue 1-day 7-days
skin 0.99 1.06
breast 0.64 2.07
liver 1.89 1.64
skin 1.59 0.96
breast 0.09 1.18
In Test 3, mature hens were treated using dust/bath boxes
employing 5 percent carbaryl dust. Sampling and analyses were done as
in Test 1.
Average residues (mg/kg) after (days)
Tissue 7 14 28
breast nil nil nil
skin 0.96 0.37 0.08
liver nil nil nil
In Test 4, caged layers were fogged with 4 percent carbaryl
suspension. Sampling and analyses were done as in Test 1.
Residues (mg/kg) after (days)
Tissue 0 7
breast 0.21 nil
leg 0.17 nil
liver nil nil
gizzard 0.11 nil
Total edible tissue is calculated at 30 percent leg, 28 percent
breast, 16 percent back and neck, 11 percent wings, 9 percent skin, 3
percent gizzard and 3 percent liver. A residue of 5 mg/kg in skin
translates to 0.45 mg/kg in the whole bird.
The meeting received the information required to deal with the
matters referred from the 15th Session of CCPR (1983).
Carbaryl is used for the control of insect pests of bananas,
especially in Central and South America. It is applied by aircraft and
by mist blowers. Because bananas are harvested continuously, it is not
possible to have an enforceable pre-harvest interval.
A series of investigations involving the treatment, sampling and
analysis of bananas produced adequate evidence that the residue in
bananas on the day of treatment was of the order of 5 mg/kg and that
the concentration in the edible pulp was not significantly less than
that in the peel. The concentration of the original deposit declined
consistently over seven days but many samples still remained in the
region of 5 mg/kg.
The meeting agreed that the MRL on bananas (pulp) should be
amended to apply to the whole fruit.
Information received from Canada, Portugal, United Kingdom and
United States confirmed that carbaryl is still used extensively for
direct application to poultry, as well as to their cages and building
structures for the control of mites, lice and ticks.
Results from four trials showed that when poultry are dusted with
carbaryl there is a substantial uptake by the skin but this decreases
considerably within seven days. There is likewise a significant
transfer to breast and leg muscle but these levels decline fairly
rapidly. The meeting concluded that the recommendations previously
made for MRLs in poultry were still appropriate but recommended a
change in the commodity description from "poultry (edible parts)" to
Commodity MRL (mg/kg)
Bananas 5 [changed from 5 (in the pulp)]
Poultry meat 0.5 [changed from 0.5 for poultry
(in the edible portion)]
Canada Information on use patterns of carbaryl in poultry submitted
1984 by Canada to FAO.
Johnson, D.P., Critchfield, F.E. & Arthur, B.W. Determination of Sevin
1963 insecticide and its metabolites in poultry tissues and eggs.
J. Agric. Food Chem., 11:77-80.
Netherlands. Information on use patterns of carbaryl in poultry
1984 submitted by the Netherlands to FAO.
Poland. Information on use of carbaryl submitted by Poland to FAO.
Portugal. Information on use patterns of carbaryl in poultry submitted
1984 by Portugal to FAO.
Union Carbide. Information on use patterns and supervised trials of
1984a carbaryl in bananas submitted by Union Carbide Agricultural
Products Company to FAO. (Unpublished)
Union Carbide. Information on residues of carbaryl in poultry
1984b submitted by Union Carbide Agricultural Products Company to
United Kingdom. Information on use of carbaryl in poultry submitted by
1984 the United Kingdom to FAO.
United States. Information on use patterns of carbaryl in poultry
1984 submitted by the United States to FAO.